超越因果,心如如不动

达真堪布

恒时远离恶毒心,何处若起倨傲时,

尔时摧灭此我慢,忆念上师之教言。

“恒时远离恶毒心”,心要远离恶念,远离恶业,处处要结善缘,种善根。否则,恶缘成熟了,还要互相伤害。“儿子不听话,老公不关心我。”烦恼得不得了。老公不爱你,不关心你,这是你欠人家的,该还的;儿子不听话,不好好学习,没办法,这也是曾经结下的恶缘,结恶缘了就要得恶果。不要轻视这些恶缘,果既然成熟了,就要承担果报。如何转变因果呢?就是从因地下手,处处结善缘,种善根。这样,将来就没有这些恶缘,没有这些痛苦了。

真的,解脱不难。我从七岁出家到现在,虽然没有太大的成就,但是我深信因果。我以佛讲的因果来对照、衡量、推测自己,可以得出结论,以前我肯定结过很多善缘,没有结过恶缘。因为我不用特意防备谁,没有人偷我东西,也没有人来伤害我,让我烦恼。不管是在藏地,还是在汉地都一样。我这样说不是因为我有神通。

现在不知道你们是真心实意,还是花言巧语,好多人都说:“我从今天起要依止上师,要跟上师学。”说实话,我没有别的可学之处,只有刚才说的这些,是你们应该学的地方。想跟我学,就这样处处结善缘,种善根,将来你们也不会结恶果。多好啊!

不要结恶缘。有的人到山上、到庙里了还结恶缘,还东挑西捡,闲言碎语,胡思乱想。无始劫以来的习气,把你的相续熏成这样!你们到哪里去找这样一个清净的道场?到哪里去找这样一个修行的场所?这里大部分人都跟我学修好多年了,我虽然没有什么功德,但是我经常给大家讲解佛法,使大家都有了一些收获,可以说相续都很成熟了。这是佛法的力量,不是我的力量。

我为什么要求大家到这里听法?因为我相信佛法的力量不可思议。只有佛法,才能改变人;只有佛法,才能救度人。虽然我没有什么功德,但是我给大家讲经说法,会对大家有所帮助,你们也会有收获。而且相对来说,这个道场很平和,不管是在藏地,还是在内地,这样的道场很难找。我不是自赞,也不是自傲,说的都是实话。

但是,如果到了这样一个清净的道场,你还犯毛病,结恶缘,种恶因,造恶业,你还不如不来,还不如不学。谁也没有勉强你,我从来没有勉强过人,你们都是自愿来的,都是自愿学的。若是你总不改变自己的恶习,为什么要到这里来呢?这里是道场。这里只有道,只有正法,是修持正法的场所;这里只能有道友,不能有恶友。不要弄混了!若是你们互相伤害,就变成恶友,就结恶缘,种恶因了,将来要承受果报的。

我们所结的缘、所种的因,都在我们自己的相续中。我们的相续——阿赖耶识是块很大的田地,善与恶的种子都播种在这里。结善缘了,储存在这里;结恶缘了,也储存在这里。将来机缘成熟的时候都会发芽、结果。善有善报,恶有恶报。现在有的人哭喊着:“哎呦,完了!救救我吧!”现在可救不了你,因为业力现前了啊!佛讲过,我也跟大家说过,业力现前的时候像洪水一样,谁也拦不住。我们只能提前做好准备,做好预防。

其实我讲得很明白。我们现在学佛修行,最好要超越因果。不受因果,心如如不动,就像看电影一样,这叫超越;如果不能超越,就转变因果,将恶转成善;如果不能超越因果,也不能转变因果,就要面对因果。业力现前的时候,连佛都没有办法,我还能有什么办法?领导都没有办法,我一个员工有什么办法?老总、董事长都没有办法,我一个保安有什么办法?

“何处若起倨傲时,尔时摧灭此我慢,忆念上师之教言。”心起贡高傲慢的时候,依照上师的教言去降伏它。不能骄傲,不能有傲慢,不然,它对我们的危害非常大。

Khenpo DaZhen Rinpoche (达真堪布) 2.

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The essence of practice is really in mind itself, it is accumulating virtue in the mind. When we hold to the commitment that we have made to liberate beings, we continuously act on their behalf. We don’t act in order to benefit just ourselves in anyway. Not even with the smallest pore of our skin, do we wish to bring benefit to ourselves alone. In fact, we take the vast mind that says – even if I need to take rebirth in the three lower realms, that is fine. Everything I do is for the benefit of others. When we have this kind of mindset, then all of our activities of body, speech and mind becomes virtuous. We should recall again and again the qualities of generating bodhicitta, that it establishes us on the path, that it becomes a cause for us to purify negativities and accumulate virtue, and we should rejoice accordingly.

— Garchen Rinpoche

His Eminence 7th Yongzin Ling Rinpoche 

(with English & Chinese translation)

Day 1 (28th June 2016): The Three Principal Aspects of The Path

There Is No “I” Who Is Sitting

by Venerable Sheng Yen

When you first practice the Ch’an method of silent illumination, it is very simple. You just sit with the awareness that you are sitting. However, as your practice deepens, the method changes to where there is no method to speak of, even as you continue in the state of silent illumination. The silent aspect is achieved when wandering thoughts no longer trouble you. Illumination comes with being acutely aware of what is happening, even as your mind is silent. As your practice deepens you no longer need to remind yourself to stay on the method. You are just constantly in the state of silent illumination. In this sense, silent illumination becomes a method of no-method.

When you first take up the practice, you still have wandering thoughts, but you are clearly aware of them. The way to deal with them is simply to keep your focus on your awareness that you are sitting. Just stay with that awareness that you are sitting. But isn’t this thought that you are sitting itself a wandering thought? Yes, it is. The difference is that this particular wandering thought, “I am sitting,” goes in one direction only, has continuity and is constant and consistent in nature. Other wandering thoughts scatter in all sorts of directions, change all the time and have no consistency. They vary widely in nature, content and quality. At first glance they seem to have something to do with you, but on closer examination they are unrelated stuff thrown together like garbage.

On the other hand, when used correctly, silent illumination goes consistently and continuously in the same direction, and effectively lessens and reduces other scattered thoughts. Over time, your mind becomes quieter and clearer. This is certainly not enlightenment, but at least one does not suffer as much from mental burdens, and there is stillness and clarity. The stillness is silence and the clarity is illumination. Yes, this method is still a wandering thought but it is a wandering thought that unifies instead of scatters our mind.

We all want to make progress in our practice. For example, when you set out to journey to a faraway place on foot, every day, you know you are getting closer to your destination. When it comes to practice, it is not always clear from day to day whether you are making progress. Then there is the question of obstacles. Is it possible to make progress in your practice without encountering obstacles? When you climb a stairway, each step up is like an obstacle. You just take the steps one at a time. When you come to a landing, you can look back down and see the progress you have made. Eventually you reach the top. In a similar way, some people may think that every time they go on another retreat, they are attaining a higher level in their practice. Some may even see each day of retreat as progress over the previous day. Then you get to the level of thinking every sitting is progress over the previous one. But making progress in practice is not like climbing stairs.

We practice to lessen vexation and gradually illuminate the mind. But the road to that end, where the environment no longer gives rise to vexation, is marked with obstacles. When you scale a mountain, there is rarely a straight path to the top. More likely, you will encounter twists and turns, rises and dips, objects to get around and over. As you overcome these obstacles, you may get closer, but it is not a straight walk to the summit. As practitioners, we have an ordinary being’s body and mind. We can tire mentally and physically. When this happens, it is very difficult to make progress even if you want to keep going forward, making breakthrough after breakthrough.

Therefore, if you are constantly motivated to accumulate positive experiences, the opposite — negative experiences — is likely to happen. Under these conditions, one is likely to feel frustration. This leads to negative feelings and thoughts like, “This is not for me. I’m not the kind of person who can practice well.” When you try to move forward you meet an obstacle, or find yourself going in circles, or even going backwards. There comes a temptation to give up and leave practice to others.

We need to remind ourselves that the purpose of practice is gradually to leave behind self-clinging and to illuminate one’s mind. Its aim is to slow down and eventually end our struggles to satisfy our cravings and to find complete security. Craving happiness, we make sacrifices to attain it, and this sacrificing causes suffering. The quest for happiness causes our suffering, and to escape suffering we seek happiness. This cycle of happiness and suffering constitutes the ego-centered self.

As for security, we build a wall around ourselves to protect our possessions and our happiness. Over time, this wall gets thicker and thicker, and we lose touch with the self inside the wall, as well as the world outside the wall. This is egocentric. The purpose of practice is to gradually eliminate self-craving and self-protection, so that the ego, the protective wall, slowly fades away until it is eliminated.

The thought of having no self may seem frightening and dangerous, but in fact when you begin practicing you need the self that is already there. Otherwise, you are either in a vegetative state or you just don’t know who you are. In the latter case, you would be a fool. So you start practicing by relying on the vexed self. With practice, the vexed self will become a self of compassion and wisdom. It is not that the self disappears, but that it has been transformed.

One practitioner told me that as a result of practice he felt that his self was beginning to disappear, and that scared him. “Everything else can disappear, but I don’t want my self to disappear! If I disappear I won’t have a girlfriend anymore. I don’t think I want to practice anymore.” I told him that as he practiced, his mind of vexation would transform into a mind of wisdom and compassion. When that happened, he would be more capable of bringing love to others, to his family and friends. Not a possessive love, but rather a love that comes with offering yourself to others out of compassion. As one loves others in this compassionate, selfless way, what one gets back will make one’s life more fulfilling and happier.

So looking at it this way, how do you measure progress in practice? You cannot quantify progress. It’s not like getting paid for work by the day, and every day you work, you put the money in the bank and watch your account go up and up. Progress cannot be accumulated and quantified like this. As you practice, concern about your progress is just another wandering thought, like any other wandering thought. As ever, when you become aware of wandering thoughts, just return your focus to the method and they will leave of their own accord. As you eliminate wandering thoughts, you are at the same time letting go of attachment and vexation. As I said, the method itself is a wandering thought, but one that goes in the same direction and is orderly and consistent. So it is different from the scattered thoughts that bring us suffering and vexation.

Using the method, some may sit well in one period and not be bothered by wandering thoughts. It will be a pleasant experience, and right away they will feel better. After this they will say, “Hmmm, I really like this; I’d like to have one more pleasant sitting.” So during the next period he or she is waiting for the pleasant experience to return. In fact, the next sitting may not be as good, or may be much worse. This person became attached to the positive experience and, as you remember, attachment is a wandering thought. As a result of anticipation, this person was not focused on the method of practice. When you attach to pleasant experiences, you are setting yourself up for disappointment.

Think of practice as climbing a glass mountain, very slippery and very steep. To make things worse, before climbing that glass mountain, you cover yourself with body lotion, so you are very slippery as well. Now as you try to climb the glass mountain, you go a couple of steps and slip backward. Nevertheless, every time you slip you try again. This is the attitude you should have towards practice. Every time you go forward, you may fall backward, yet you must keep climbing onto the road of practice. Yes, it is really exhausting, but you keep climbing the glass mountain until the mind that has been climbing eventually disappears. When you no longer cling to the thought of climbing the mountain, your mission has been accomplished. Have you reached the summit? No, but that is not important, because the mission has been accomplished. You may think, “If that is the case, I won’t even make the effort to climb the mountain at all, since it’s so much work.” But that is not a correct view, because before trying to climb the glass mountain you have this self-centered ego. Only through the process of climbing can you gradually eliminate self-centered ego.

Of course, climbing the glass mountain is just an analogy. In actual Ch’an practice, there are two approaches we use to dissolve the self-center. The first is the sudden approach, which is an intense, explosive approach where one keeps pounding at the self-center until it breaks apart. This approach uses a huatou (Japanese, koan), such as continuously asking yourself, “What is my original face?” The purpose of huatou practice is to give rise to a sense of doubt which grows bigger and bigger until, when it finally explodes, one realises sudden enlightenment.

The second method is silent illumination, which slowly calms the mind until it is completely settled. This is a gradual method where one allows wandering thoughts and vexations to slowly dissipate. You can liken this method to a pool of very muddy water. If there is no wind or activity to disturb the pool, the mud will gradually settle to the bottom, allowing the water to become clear. Like the clearing of the pond, silent illumination seeks stillness and clarity. One keeps letting the mind-dust settle until all of it has reached the bottom. Ultimately, there is no mud, no water, and no bottom. This will be when one realises enlightenment.

In silent illumination you start with being aware that you are sitting. As you focus on being aware of yourself sitting, and the body sensation itself disappears, you should still maintain the thought that you are sitting. While you maintain this thought, be clearly aware of the environment around you. Be aware that the environment is also sitting with you. After that, you even put down the thought of “I am sitting” so that there is no “I” who is sitting. There is just a clarity that you maintain, but the “I” is not there.

If there comes a moment when you ask, Where am I? Is my “self” still there? At this moment you have left your method and are involved with wandering thoughts. Just go back to the method, being acutely aware of yourself sitting.

Ven Sheng Yen 27

Fabricated, dependent and perfected: So the wise understand, in depth, the three natures. What appears is the dependent. How it appears is the fabricated. Because of being dependent on conditions. Because of being only fabrication. The eternal non-existence of the appearance as it is appears: That is known to be the perfected nature, because of being always the same. What appears there? The unreal fabrication. How does it appear? As a dual self. What is its non-existence? That by which the non-dual reality is there.

— Vasubandhu

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一般道德与佛化道德

印顺法师

     道德,不独是佛法所有的。世界的各宗教,各民族,各时代,都有他的道德,不过佛教的道德观,在一般共通的基础上,更有他独到的特质而已。所以,现在想从一般的道德,说到佛化的道德。

     人类(进一步到一切众生)能和乐共存,互助合作,实现家齐、国治、天下平的理想,道德是显得极其重要的。如忽视道德,则家庭、国家、国际,都会混乱不堪。从前释迦佛出世时,印度传统的婆罗门教,失去了权威,而新起的思想界,就有怀疑道德、否定道德的。他们大抵依据机械的、唯物的观点,觉到世间无所谓道德与不道德,没有善与恶,也没有从善恶而引起的苦乐果报。他们破坏了道德的轨律,破坏旧道德的轨律,破坏旧的而不能凝成新的宗教,新的道德。然而世间不能没有是非,不能不分别善恶邪正,故释尊呵斥那些抹煞道德的为 「邪见」人,为引导人类堕入恶趣者。释尊的大觉而创立佛教,就是重新肯定道德价值的宗教。所以真正的学佛,就是从一般的道德实践起,进步到最圆满的道德生活的完成。

一. 道德与不道德

     说到道德,就有不道德。道德与不道德,佛法中称为善与恶。这二者,不能从物质的观念中得来,所以唯物论的人生观,等于从根否定了善恶的意义。道德与不道德,大概的说,是人类以上的文明产物,从有意识的实践中表现出来。善与恶,依什么作标准?怎样是善的?怎样是恶的?从事相来说,可有二义。一、从将来的结果来说:人们的起心动念,说话作事,如因此而引起将来的良好果报,就是善。如这样做去,会得到将来的不良后果,就是恶。二、从当前所对的人事说:不问什么事,如对他人有利益,叫做善;否则就是恶。依此而分析起来,可以有四种:假使这样做,自己与他人都能得好处,这当然是善的。如自己吃亏而他人能得利益,这也是善的,而且极有意义。如自他都无利益,都受损害,这当然是恶的。如自己虽得利益,而他人那受到损害,这不能不说是恶的。上面二种解说,善恶的判断是一致的。因为,现在所作而于他有利的,即使现在自己有损,而将来一定会感受乐果,所以是善。反之,即使现在自己沾些便宜,将来也会招受大苦,所以是恶。如深一层说,佛法就称善与恶为「法与非法」。依中国话说,即合理与不合理。凡契合于正理的,是法,是善。不合理的,是非法,是恶。违理与非法的,一定会引起他人的损害,是恶。反之,合于法理的,一定会于人有益,所以是善。善与恶的简单分别,大略如此。

二. 最一般的道德与道德律

  什么是一般的道德?不是佛教所独有的,是各宗教,各民族,各时代所可能共有的道德。在这一般的道德中,最根本的,或可说是道德的根本,为一切道德行为所不可离的。如离开了这,虽也多少有其价值,但是微不足道,或可说不成其为道德的 ── 这就是最一般的道德。释迦佛出世前后,印度的宗教界,编集有「法经」,「法论」(法即是道德),近于中国的礼。在这些道德法规中,以慈悲不杀为最一般的道德。这不只是印度人,或是某一阶级的道德,而是一切人类所应有的道德。出现于印度的佛教,也以「慈悲为本」,而看作首要的、根本的道德。慈与悲,佛法中小小有差别。希望他人得到快乐,帮助他人得到快乐,这是慈心慈行。希望他离去苦痛,帮助他解除苦痛,这是悲心悲行。一般人的慈悲,虽与佛法所说的大慈悲,不完全相合,但这是深度与阔度的不同,论性质还是共通的。一切的道德心行,都以此为本。

  我们学佛的,首先要受皈依。皈依的愿文说:「从今时乃至命终,护生」。进而受戒,先要受持不杀生戒。护生与不杀生,便是慈悲心行的实践。佛教的一切德行,都是不能离开慈悲不杀的。从佛法看来,众生的生命延续,虽说是苦痛的根源,但又没有不贪恋生存。因为众生所有相对的喜乐,都以生存为先决条件,所以苦痛充满的众生,为了爱好不彻底的世乐,都怕自己(一期)生命的毁灭。众生没有不是爱生恶死的,厌苦求乐的,佛法的护生与不杀生,以及大乘佛教的不肉食,都契合于众生的共欲,合情合理的,所以是道德的。这种最一般的道德,在中国文化主流的儒家中,就是仁。德行虽是很多的,如孝弟忠信礼义廉耻等,但仁是最根本的,向来都以仁为德行的核心。此外,如老子所说的三宝中有慈,墨子说兼爱,以及基督教的爱,都无非慈悲的别名。大家都把一切德行,归纳到仁、爱、慈,这可见印度文化中说慈悲为最一般的道德,实在非常确切。因此,道德的基石是仁慈,是「与乐」、「拔苦」。现在唯物论的共产党徒,提倡阶级的爱,阶级的道德。事实上,从仇恨斗争的基础出发,使全人类普遍陷于斗争残杀的恐怖中,这那里是道德!从不道德 ── 仇恨斗争的动机出发,无论怎么说,那样做,只是增长人类的苦痛。不但毁灭别人,自己也被毁灭。从唯物论观点而来的。实是抹煞道德的伪道德。

  为什么仁、慈、爱是道德的根本,是最一般的道德律?我们知道:道德是表现于自他关系上的,而仁就是人与人间的合理关系,发为应有的合理行为。佛法说有「自通之法」,这是从自己要怎样,推知他人也要怎样。这是「以己(心)度他心」,就是儒家絜矩的恕道。依自通之法来说:我要解除苦痛,他也同我一样,那末我不应增加他人的苦痛,而且应帮助解除他。我要有喜乐,他人也一样的要有喜乐;那末我不能夺去他人的福乐,更应该协助获得他。自己要去愚痴,要得智慧,要身体健康,人格健全,都应使他人和我一样。这样的以己心度他心,即是慈悲与一切德行的源泉。耶稣说:「你要人怎样待你,你也要怎样待人」。我要人待我好,所以我也要待人好。虽近于自通之法,然在自他关系上,还是从为了自己出发。佛法说:我希望加此,可见他人也是希望如此的,所以应该对他人如此,这只是对人的同情,并无功利观念。儒家说:「己所不欲,勿施于人」;「已欲立而立人,己欲达而达人」:与佛法的精神,更为相合!

  众生的生命,是心色和集,又是自他增上,彼此依存,苦乐相关的。人与人(众生)间有这样的关切,所以损害他是不合理的;自他既是相依而存的,害他即等于害己。反过来说:帮助他减少痛苦,也就等于减少自己的痛苦,这当然是合理 ── 善。这利他而后能自利,损他等于损己的道理,一般人不一定清楚地了解,或者还会反对而不愿信受道德的法则。可是我们从无始以来,生生不已的活动,不能不受这自他相依,苦乐相关的法则所影响。所以在不离自他依存的生活中,虽没有人教导,也会自觉到自他间的同一性,引发他人的需要,与我一样的意念。见人受苦而生悲恻心,见人得利而生欢喜心,每从无意间流露出道德意识的自觉。这种道德意识,或称良心,良知,什么人都是多少有的。不过有些人,为物欲 ── 色情、名誉、利养权势等所迷覆,道德意识的自觉,不容易显发,专门为私为己,损他害己。甚至见他失利而幸灾乐祸,见他得利而嫉妒障碍。然而穷凶极恶的,在某种环境下,也会良心发现,感到自己的罪恶而痛哭流涕的。

  无始来不离自他依存而引发的,根源于仁慈的道德意识,不但是人人所共有的,而且是一切道德所不能离的。例如孝养父母,虽说是天经地义,然如为了奉养,从掠夺、贪枉、欺骗而得来财物,也不能说是善的,不能不说是非法 ── 恶的。因为获得财物时,对人失去了道德 ── 慈悲的缘故。所以说到道德的心行,应该重视这最一般的道德意识。

三. 道德的变与不变

  部分人的看法,道德是:「放诸四海而皆准,百世俟诸圣人而不惑」,似乎一毫变动不得。另一些人,却以为道德是依经济及社会情况的变动而变动,并无一成不变的。这虽都有部分的意义,而实是:慈悲为道德的普遍轨律,无可变动;而表现于实际的德行,有着种种性,有着变动性,虽然内容还是有着一贯性的。

  这可以分三点来说:一、表现于自他的社会关系时,如对家庭、区域、国家、世界,由于应对各社会层的不同关系,所表现的德行,也就多少不同,如『善生经』说:父子、夫妇、师弟等间,彼此都有应守的德目。依一般说:如家庭的孝道,是无可疑的应有德行。但在社会或国家的立场,就有「移孝作忠」,或「大义灭亲」的德行,而不能拘守家庭的孝道。经上曾说:「为家忘一人,为村忘一家,为国忘一村,为身忘世间」。这是为了(大社会层)大的利益,就不能不牺牲(小社会层)小利。不过,道德不是法律,重于自发自觉的操持;可以启发诱导,而不能强人所难,硬性的要别人如此。否则,不免有人要假藉「为公忘私」,「全大舍小」的美名,强迫人类作违反人伦、国谊的罪行(如共产党的硬要人斗争父母老师),陷人类于大苦痛,恰好是违反慈悲,残酷而无同情的恶行。

  二、表现于时间的前后关系时,由于社会情况有着某种变动,道德的措施,也就会多少不同。如家天下时代的忠君,到民国便不同。又如男女间应守的德行,从母性中心时代,到现今的一夫一妻制,贞操的含义,有着多少不同的。但这决不是道德无标准,忠贞永远是人类应有的美德,仅因时而表现不同,或从不完全而演进到更完全而已!

  三、表现于根机的浅深关系时,同一社会,同一时代,而由于个人的根性,德行会多少变化。如佛法中,人乘法只要不邪淫,就是持不淫戒;而声闻乘的出家者,却完全遮禁。同是一样的戒,如不杀、不盗等,小乘要止,大乘中有可作的。在小乘中,不那样做是持戒,大乘中可能认为犯戒,要这样才算持戒。表面看来,大小乘的德行相反,其实不过由于发心不同,目标不同,对于戒德的运用,小小差别。而对于某一德目的尊重,某一德行的信守,始终是一致的。

  总之,道德的根源在慈悲,这是不可能变动的;没有慈悲,即是不道德或非道德的。从此而表现于自他间多方面的合理关系,有孝弟忠信等不同德目。这些,可因时,因地,因对象,因志趣而不同,但这些德行,永远是人类相互依存所应有的准则。古人说:「盗亦有道」。大盗的劫掠残害,当然是不道德的。但大盗的能成大盗,至少在对于部属间,必有他的合理关系,这才能团集而成为大盗。如完全背弃了自他间的应有关系,大盗也是不能成就的。这说明了有人类,有社会,人与人间的应有德行,永远不可能背弃的。所以,我们鼓励人类尊重道德,实践道德,要从道德的根本去启发他,激发人类的慈悲,去实现于一切事行。如忽略根本,只知拘守陈迹,死执教条,那不但不能契合道德的真意,反而会引起对于道德的误解,甚而障碍了道德的开展。

四. 道德的三增上

  增上,是依的意思。我们依此三者,可以使我们的德行,进展为更完善、更崇高的。对于道德,这三者都是有力的增上缘;但必须三者并重,而不偏于一边才好。什么是三增上?一、自增上,自是自己。二、法增上,法是真理或轨律。 三、世间增上,世间是舆论及公认的意见。要遵行完善的德行,不能不顾到这三者。这与我国古说的:「畏天命,畏大人,畏圣人之言」,有点相近。

  一、自增上,即时常唤起自尊心。尊重自己,不甘下流。对自己所作的,勇于负责;对一切应做的事,由自己来担当。声闻乘说:人人有解脱分。大乘说:人人有佛性。确信自己有为善,成贤成圣,成佛作祖的可能,「彼既丈夫我亦尔,不应自轻而退屈」。不愿自暴自弃,努力向上,没有不能做到的。尊重自己,扩展自心的德行,负起自救救他的重任。尊重自己不甘下流,便是促进道德的主要力量。二,法增上,要循着真理而行,不能与他相违背。前面说过:善行名法,恶行即非法。凡契合缘起事理的心行,是道德,我们不能不顺此而前进。三、世间增上:大家以为这样是合理的,这样是圣贤或善人所称叹的,我就应这样做。尊重社会的公共意志,接受社会的善意批评,这才能成一个合乎人情的善人。例如从事政治,受到外来的批评,不肯反省,自以为然;甚或「笑骂由他笑骂,好官我自为之」,这必然走向恶行。尊重舆论,就会修正自己的偏失,走向光明的坦途。

  三增上,是人类道德向上增进的基石。不但不能缺,就是偏在那一边,也会发生偏弊的。如过分尊重自己,每觉得自己的超胜;什么真理,人情,容易放在一边。这即使动机良善,也会渐渐地走向不道德的路,自害害人。如过于尊重真理,可能会冷酷而不顺人情。专顾世间,容易背弃真理。因为世间的意见,不一定对,真理并不以多数为标准。所以,我们要持行完善的德行,走向出世圆正的道德,决不能离此三者,而应从协调中不断向上。佛法的二乘,重于理智,对世间利济众生事业,不免冷淡些。这虽不是不道德,而到底不够完善。大乘圆满的菩萨道,三增上并重,这才能完成究竟圆满的佛德。

五. 佛化的道德在般若

  上来所讲的,大抵与世间所说的相通,还不能表显佛法的特色。佛法能完成究竟圆满的德行,他的特质何在?佛化道德的特质在般若。

  梵语般若,华语为智慧。但此所说的智慧,意义极深,指通达我法空性的真慧,不是一般智慧所可比拟的,所以『智度论』说:「般若甚深,智不足称」。为什么说佛化的道德在般若?这可从不道德说起。不道德的恶行,从什么而发生?是由于烦恼而来的。一切烦恼,以萨迦耶见──我见为本。一般世间的一切动作,都从我见而流出。做坏事,固然由于我见的策动;即使是做善事,也还是不离我见。一般人为着自身利益,遵行道德的生活,看来是洁身自好,为众服务,为社会国家谋利益,其实还是为自己的,离不了我见的力量。

  为了满足个己的(我家、我国等)愿望,如损他而作不道德的事,固然要不得。就是行善 ── 像布施、持戒,如觉得我能修行,我比他好,我救了他,也还是和我见纠缠在一起。从私我的情见出发,即使高扬着为人类为社会的旗帜,也是不理想的。因为从私我的情见出发,好事非我来做不可;救人救世,也非我(我们)不可。我才能行善,我才能救国救世界,你不行。这种两贤相嫉,大抵是为了这个。依佛化的道德看来,这是不彻底不完善的。道德与不道德相杂,想行善而往往误入恶径。只要是善事,别人做与我做,同样的是善事;我应该做,他人能做更好。如非自己行善不可,对他即不能不争,或者并无多大不同而还是非争不可,这样的善行,问题可就大了!这是不能自利利他,不足以救济世间,不足以证得菩提的。所以,一般的恶行,增长生死,生起苦痛。就是一般的善行,也还在生死中,还是不能脱离苦痛的。由于一般的善行,并无彻底的善行,为善也从自己出发,于是世间的邪见者,怀疑道德,否认有纯粹为他的德行。实则,一般的善行,不离自己的情见,就是凡夫行;凡夫本来如此,就凡夫说凡夫,这不能责他怪他,还是应该奖励他为善。不完善的德行,到底比作恶好得多。凡夫的善行虽如此,而圣者的德行,却与此不同。

  佛化的道德,建立于般若 ── 无我智的盘石;是破除私我,扫荡执见的特殊智慧。从这种智慧所摄持,所引导的,便与凡夫的德行,截然不同。不再专为自我,为我的家庭,我的庙子,我的故乡,我的国家而着想,能从整个人类,一切众生的立场去看一切。这在佛法,称为缘法界众生而发心。不但求自己得益,动机在使大家都得到利益。那些说世间都为自己,没有真实为人道德的怀疑者,若研求佛法,就知道佛法中,确有不为自己的真道德。菩萨为利益众生而发心,必要从无我智透出。如体悟一切法无我,真慈悲即活跃于内心;私情与爱欲,能当下断尽。菩萨悟入世间是相依相关的,法法平等不二,这才见众生乐如己乐,见众生苦而如亲受苦痛一样。与乐拔苦的慈悲,油然而生,而且是无限的扩展。这样的慈悲,似乎与儒者的仁,耶教的爱相近,然这是无我的慈悲,实在是大大的不同了。通达无我法性,发大慈悲心,这是真情与圣智协调的统一心境;学佛的最高道德,即从此而发现出来。

  学佛,重在袪除私我,但不依方法,还是袪除不了。如遍地的荆棘蔓草,不锄尽根株,决不能生长嘉谷。我们心中的私欲,也是根深蒂固,非着力的痛下功夫,也不能清净而完成崇高的德行。所以修持悟入,目的在净化身心,从此而完成圆满究竟的德行。不知者以为佛法的修持,与世间与人类无关,这是重大的误解。要化除我我所见,要依戒、定、慧 ── 三学去修习。如儒家于道德的修养,也有一番功力,防范于起心动念之前。时时照顾,要人致敬,慎独。然佛法的修持,不但要息心而「制心一处」,还要于一心中,勘破自我,定慧齐修。从染恶根源 ── 我见去锻炼一番,琢磨净尽,才能心地发光,显发为完善的德行。真能做到私我净尽。般若现前,那就不但了脱生死,而一切行为,无不随顺正法,能真实的度脱有情。佛教所说的一般道德,与其他相通;惟有从般若而流出的无漏德行,才是佛化的不共道德。道德与真理慧浑融,表现出佛化道德的特色。

六. 学佛即是道德的实践

  学佛是道德的实践,这说明了学佛是人人应学,不论男女长幼的。信佛的,到寺里来进香礼佛,持名诵咒,这是对于佛菩萨的崇敬,或请求佛菩萨的加被。真正学佛的不但是信仰,不但是遵行佛教的礼仪,而要信智并重。学佛也不是专重教理,研究一番就算数,而要解行并重。

  学佛的主题,不外乎三学—戒、定、慧, 或开广为六度,这都是实践德行。其中,戒是一般的德行,重在止恶防非。然不单是止,如应作而不作,也是违犯的。能够持戒,身语的行为,就会合乎法度。不过,外表的行为虽谨持不犯,而还不能将内心的乱念息下。散乱,失念,不正知,这都是使心地蒙昧不明,使我们走向罪过的动力。所以进一步,应当集中精神,专心一境,使内心进入安定而纯净的境地,这就是定。得了定,部分的烦恼降伏了,但要断除烦恼,非引发无漏慧不可。真慧 ── 二无我慧,是廓清我见、妄执的利器,如炽烈的猛火一样,烧尽一切的烦恼。内心经过慧火的锻炼,毕竟清净,这才能内心外身,所行都能合法。慈悲心净化而增长了,能舍己为人,显发为圆满的德行。从这学佛的过程看,学佛不是别的,只是从外表清净而到内心清净,从内心净化而使外表的行为,更完美,更圆满,学佛实只是道德的实践。这一完美的实践过程,虽不能人人都做到,但要做一世间的善人,也得合乎学佛的戒学才得。

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When peacocks roam through the jungle of virulent poison, though the gardens of medicinal plants may be attractive, the peacock flocks will not take delight in them; for peacocks thrive on the essence of virulent poison. Likewise when heroes enter the jungle of cyclic existence, though the gardens of happiness and prosperity may seem beautiful, the heroes will not become attached to them; for heroes thrive in the forest of suffering.

— Dharmaraksita

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