Devotion
by Tai Situ Rinpoche

Today at the request of Samye Ling, I will be talking about devotion. Devotion seems to be a rather easy term, or convenient, and rather easy to sometimes feel that you have devotion, or that you don’t have devotion. Then one can speculate, ‘why is it like this?’ But the devotion itself, when we really look into it, has many levels, and involves many things and many aspects. So, since we don’t have too much time, I will try to go through different particulars of devotion, and hopefully we will gain an overall understanding and picture of devotion as such.

I really don’t know where the English word ‘Devotion’ comes from. What is ‘De’ supposed to mean, what is ‘vo’ supposed to mean, what is ‘tion’ supposed to mean; so I really don’t know what it is. But I know the equivalent Tibetan words, which the English word ‘devotion’ is used for. So, according to that, of my understanding, which is definitely limited of course, but we will look at what I think the word ‘devotion’ is used to translate particular Tibetan words.

We have ‘Te-pa’, ‘Ngu-gu’ and ‘Te-pa, Ngu-pa and Ku-pa’, and these are what the word devotion is representing. So I will be talking about devotion based on what these terms mean to us. Even ‘Yi-chi’ might go into the same category, for which you might say ‘faith’ I think. Somehow all of that goes into the same area or category.

When we describe this, there are different kinds of devotion. For example; you are devoted to a particular course, or a particular person, or to particular things that you want. So, when we say ‘cause’, this means for others. ‘Person’, means whatever that person is, like the leader of that cause, or some particular person that fulfils your needs or whatever. Also, sometimes this devotion shifts. So, you have devotion to one person, or cause, or something of your own interest, and then after some time you change your mind. So, you are no longer devoted to that person, or that cause, or that personal interest, but for something else. You will have another person to whom you might be devoted, another personal interest, another cause. So, a person who changes a lot, always will change, it’s more likely, and a person who does not change a lot, does not change a lot. You see? So that is somehow the habitual pattern. This way there are many different kinds of devotion, as you see.

However, all the devotion, have one kind of vague, but overall characteristic, namely that you somehow are willing to put time, energy, or whatever towards that. Whether it is a common cause, or something that you really want for yourself, or a person who’s common cause you are willing to fulfil. So, you devote and dedicate your time. So, in this way, there are all kinds of ways in which your time and energy are dedicated. So, that is overall, vague, and superficial aspect of devotion.

For example, maybe I am wrong, but nowadays in this world people are very, very devoted to money. And they are willing to do anything – I can’t say anything but there are many people who will do anything, many who might do almost anything, and many who will anyway put a lot, to get money. So, they are devoted to money, but for influence, to be somebody for power. You see? So, there are others devoted to power. And, so this is another kind of devotion.

Then, we Buddhists, especially Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhists are supposed to be totally devoted to Enlightenment. So, you are willing to do anything, to dedicate everything to attain Enlightenment or Buddhahood. So, we are dedicated… supposed to be… devoted to that.

When you look at devotion in this way, then you see the general picture. You are able to devote your time, your energy, your ‘face’ – you know what I mean by ‘face’? The ‘face’ means… hmm… o.k., generally people are supposed to be something, right? So, you don’t mind not being that. So, that is ‘face’, and normally in the world if you are not able to fulfil what you are supposed to represent, then you lose ‘face’… not only you but your parents, your great grandparents who died hundreds of years ago, and even the colour of your skin… you know… the race that you belong to loses ‘face’. But, when we are really devoted, then we don’t mind. Take Milarepa for example; he was from quite a well off family, you know, but for Enlightenment, he lived in a cave, instead of a house, and he just ate… what do you call this real irritating stuff… (Laughing) … nettles, yes… he ate that. And he had nothing, sometimes he didn’t even have clothes, and so he totally disregarded everything that is otherwise important. Because he is dedicated and devoted to his cause, the common cause of all sentient beings, to attain Enlightenment, and the personal cause of attaining the freedom and liberation. Also, to the master to whom he found this example, the Buddha, and the personal human being in whom he found this, his Guru Marpa. So, you can see the outcome of devotion – you are somehow devoted, and so can disregard other things. So, this is very strong and extreme way to look at devotion.

Now, the lighter side; that is when we go into a place, that is something very special, where somebody has done something very special, and we admire and are inspired. In this way, for a couple of minutes or hours, we feel devoted; we feel good, somehow a little bit high, and a sense of security. That is also in the family of devotion. So, it is there and we will say, “It was inspiring day…”, “It was moving situation…” So, that has some flavour of devotion there.

So, as we look at devotion as it is, we see these aspects. If we go a little further into the same subject, then we have to go beyond this, because whatever I have described does not happen on, its own you see? Any kind of devotion happens with many other conditions and circumstances. To be very rough, I should say, devotion happens because of compassion. And true devotion and true compassion are one. You cannot have true devotion and no true compassion, so we can consider them as two wings. If your devotion is deep, then naturally your compassion is deep. If you compassion is deep then naturally your devotion is deep. If either one is shallow then the, other is shallow too. So taking things a little bit deeper like this, we see that compassion is also the crucial thing.

So we get devoted to somebody who becomes an example for us, for the common cause, and personal interest. That then is our devotion. And how that person becomes that is because of their devotion you know? And since it’s for a common cause, it has to be mixed with compassion, right? If it is a personal cause, for me, then I have devotion for some body, for my personal cause. Then it also has to be mixed with compassion. So in this way, the cause and condition for devotion, is the devotion itself and the compassion. So the other side of the most important ingredient or conditions for devotion is compassion. That is one more thing then.

Now, when we look at worldly things, which many people are devoted to, and then the spiritual aspect to which people are devoted – what is the difference between the two? The difference is the depth of the motivation.

Some people can be very, very devoted to their power or their wealth, even just for the sake of having it. And some people ant to have power and wealth to abuse others, and that is really no compassion there. But normally that is considered evil. Means, well I don’t want to be rude or anything, but that means a little bit, you know, problem up there. If you have any capability and you want to make others suffer, just because you have the ability to cause suffering, then already something is wrong. Of course it is defilement, of course ignorance and all of that, but it goes a little bit beyond that. When you wanted to have lots of money and you wanted to have a comfortable life, that is worldly of course, but that is not bad. But, if you want to have it so you can exploit others and make them suffer, that’s quite rare, not too many actually, that’s the good news. That means something is very wrong, not only defilement wrong, crazy… I mean let’s say it… little bit mad. Mentally ill, and it’s the same with power. You wanted to have power, alright? Power to do good for others and to protect yourself so others can’t hurt you. You are master of your own life. You can help others overcome their undeserved problems.

You know every problem in the whole universe is undeserved problem. Because every sentient being is Buddha, so they deserved to be Enlightened. They don’t have any reason to be suffering in Samsara. Of course they create the karma, of course, but karma is also unnecessary to be created. So then going back; you really wanted to help others through your power, it is also Samsara, but it is good. Somebody who wants a lot of power to make everybody’s life miserable, that is, also sickness, craziness, and madness. It’s not defilement. It’s more than that. It is so defiled it becomes, you know, mental problem.

Now we put that a little bit aside, the sick ones. The mental problem type of worldly devotion for one’s power and money, and so on, we put in a different category. Then all the others, who are not trying to be Enlightened, who are not trying to be liberator of every single sentient being like Buddha; but just ordinary people who are devoted to wealth, power, face… I think you Westerners too, but we Asians re very much looked at by people, or very worried about the ‘face’. Maybe in the West it is more sophisticated, more hidden ‘face’, but still there, very strong. Anyway, this also involves some kind of compassion there, because your heroes to whom you aspire, they’re your example. So, you devote your time and energy to doing certain things because somebody has done it and they are your example. So, they have done good things. They had power and helped people, they had wealth and they have done lots of good things. That way, some level of compassion is also involved there. So your inspiration involves somehow what has been done for others. So, compassion is there.

But, by definition of Samsara, it is something for just this life, right? You do it and become somebody, and you might be sitting right next to the one who’s, example you followed. So you do it just for one life. Dharma, however is for all life, and for the end of devotion, and the effort of Dharma goes very far, forever actually. Until you become Enlightened and what your Enlightenment will be all about and for whom. So in this way it is very far reaching. The worldly things are very short distance and then after one dies, best thing one could be is have a bronze statue look-a-like, but little bit oversized always, and sometimes people can admire and sometimes people can knock down. So that is how far you can reach; sometimes just statue of the head… oversized head, yes… that is the worldly sort of, if you really are devoted and really make it. Then you will be like that.

Anyway, both involve the similar things. The depth is different. Real motivation have depth or not, that is the difference. Otherwise they involve the same kind of ingredients, the same kind of material. Now, we see, in this way, roughly what devotion really means in one certain way, and what the devotion is, namely devotion itself and compassion. So that is one level.

To go a little bit further into this, the devotion and compassion are both coming from understanding the relevantness of you and everyone else, including Buddha, from heaven to hell, and you. The relevantness, the connection between everything that is, actually the real heart of the devotion and compassion. If you are relevant to Buddha…, and Buddha is relevant to you, then there is a base for the compassion and devotion. If not, then there is no basis, but there is connection. It is relevant. When Buddha says, “May I attain Enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings,” that includes all of us, right? And it includes all sentient beings, not just humans, all beings. So it is relevant. When we say, “May I attain Enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings,” then every single sentient being is relevant. Now, right now, my problem, and my suffering, and my qualities, and my happiness is relevant to everyone else. And their suffering, and their ignorance, and their happiness, and their wisdom is relevant to me. The same thing with every single person. The connection is even there physically. How? Buddha says in the sutra, “Every single sentient being has been our mother, our father, our brother, our sister, and everything else,” – everything… name it. So every sentient being has been everything to everyone of us. Not one time, countless times. So that is our connection. This life, everybody has parents, and friends, and enemies, and some people make one very happy, others make one miserable, and all of that is there regardless of how strong or weak, it is there. So in some way, everyone has been everything to everyone. In that way, it is not just relevant, but it is involved; we’re all involved with everyone… you see? There isn’t one single sentient being in the whole universe that each one of us isn’t involved with. And with everything you can think of… good things… bad things…so, so… everything. So in this way everyone is relevant to everyone, including Buddha. So we have been Buddha’s brothers, sisters, father, mother, you know, everything. Countless times. Buddha is not excluded you see? In this way we are connected to every single sentient being and they are all connected to us. So in this way, the devotion and compassion develops and derives from that.

Also, just in this life, for example, the compassion and devotion, it is also relevant, because if you see somebody suffering, you will have compassion, if you see the relevantness. What is the relevance? I’m not saying that… ‘Oh my brother or sister is suffering,’ not like that… even not think like that, even just straight forward, you know, I’m just born and will just die, and that’s it, no beginning, no end… fine… absolutely fine… still you look at somebody suffering, and if you are a sensitive, kind, clear minded, considerate, mature person, then it is relevant. Because, if you are that person, and that person is you, how would you feel? If you are that person, and they are you, just come across you and even smile at you… how do you feel? You see? So that relevantness you see in yourself. So you can feel what it’s like to be in another’s shoes, and then you feel compassion.

And devotion is also the same thing. Because you see somebody who has done a lot, who’s Enlightened, like Buddha, then you put yourself in Buddha’s place and feel Buddha’s compassion to all sentient beings, including you. And you feel Buddha’s dedication and devotion and effort for countless lifetimes to attain Enlightenment, so you develop devotion to Buddha. Then you sense and know what it takes, and the admiration, the faith, the trust, the compassion, and the concern comes naturally. Like this, the compassion and devotion is involved with the relevantness of you and everyone else, you to Buddha, to Bodhisattvas, to all sentient beings. This way you’re in the middle and you are involved. That is the devotion and that is compassion.

Now, there are so many different levels and different aspects to it, so of course we have to remember that though we have dealt with quite a few things here, this is nothing as far as actually what it is. There is so much more, so let’s go a bit deeper.

Okay. The true compassion and true devotion of your level, of my level, of somebody else’s level, is the personal level of maturity. Intellectually you can speed things up, you can slow things down, you can magnify things, you can miniaturise things, you can do all kinds of tricks. But, trick is a trick; it is not real. On what level of compassion, what level of devotion that you have, is according to your true maturity. And what level of compassion and devotion you would like to have, is you inspiration. And what level of compassion and devotion you act out, is your expertise. This way, the true devotion and true compassion that is really within each one of us, is our level of maturity on the way to liberation, or Enlightenment; that’s as far as Lord Buddha’s teachings will say. So this is our real maturity. Maybe that might sometimes be more than it appears, sometimes less than it appears. Sometimes we can act much more advanced than our self, sometimes we are not a very good actor, so we really under act. So there is overacting and under acting, but I wouldn’t say anybody under acts intentionally… very seldom, very seldom… unless sometimes there is vested interests… (laughing). Anyway, anyway, the true compassion and devotion, where we are, is our own level.

Sometimes people come to me and tell me they have lots of compassion but no devotion. Sometimes they say they have lots of devotion and no compassion. And other times they say they have both so much they don’t know how to handle… (lots of giggling)… and it drives them crazy, that’s what they say sometimes. And sometimes they’ll say they don’t have any at all. Well, I mean, all of these could be true, could be untrue, you can never tell. And anyway, where we are, is where we are regardless of if we overplay or underplay. It doesn’t make much difference.

Then another thing is to talk about what would be the practical level of devotion and compassion that we in this life can try to reach. That means… a level of compassion and a level of devotion that is true and correct and that will not be stained that will not be lost easily. That is what we should be looking forward to establishing in this life. We Tibetans say a lot about ‘fear of death’. And fear of death means one single thing… because after we die we don’t know what is our next life, we don’t know. Therefore in this life, while we know what we are, and while we remember things that we know, then we do our best to secure it. That is the definition of ‘fear of death’. It doesn’t mean 24 hours you have to be afraid of dying. You go crazy, quite soon actually, if you think like that. It means, use this life meaningfully and value every moment of living time. This time we know we are human beings, quite clear. Therefore instead of taking for granted, and loosing or wasting the time, we do our best to use the time in this life. So that is actually the ‘fear of death.’

This means in this life we have to secure our future. Okay, how best we can secure our future based on compassion and devotion is this…. In this life, if we recognise the essence of our mind, which is the embodiment of compassion and embodiment of devotion, which is most relevant to all the Buddhas and all the Bodhisattvas, and all the sentient beings; if we are able to recognise this in this life, then we are secure. Why? Because, we recognise our nature of mind one time, that will be forever. There is no such thing that you recognise your nature of mind clearly and you have forgotten. You see?

In this way, it is this kind of effort we should put to develop our compassion towards all sentient beings, to develop our devotion towards all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and the masters of the lineage. This is the ‘nature of mind’, the Buddha essence which is the essence of all of us. Of course, the recognition can mean many things. First intellectually recognising, second you just have a glimpse of experience. All of this is not really true recognition. After going through all of that then you finally come home, you see? You finally confirm your ultimate essence, and have realisation of that, the first step of realisation of that. That is little bit before the first level Bodhisattva, but not too far away. In the neighbourhood of first level Bodhisattva. If we are able to recognise and realise the nature of mind, then that should be the kind of aim that we can and should pursue in this life.

If that happens, then all future lives are always better. Even if that realisation doesn’t happen though, of course we shouldn’t worry too much. Because I totally believe, and this is according to the Dharma…. We did not come here by accident. You are where you are right now is not by accident. It happened because you have all the cause, all the conditions to manifest as you are. And if you have done your best in this life with this manifestation, why should your next life become worse, why? See? So in this way, if you have done your best in this life, which definitely you have done in your past life, then your next life will be slightly better or the same. That way we shouldn’t be obsessed by the fear of death. Although not to waste this life is important, we will not be worse in the next life by accident because we are not here in this life by accident.

So in this way, I don’t think we should be desperate about it, but then 100% security of successful passage to Enlightenment is through attaining the realisation of the nature of mind. But one should never misunderstand that for Buddhahood. Buddhahood is very different from that. Recognising the nature of mind is, I think, I should say, you just joined the kindergarten. Yes, then after that Enlightenment is guaranteed. I mean, every sentient beings Enlightenment is guaranteed in principle, but somehow, if you recognise the nature of mind, you will not fall back into the lower realms unless you intentionally wanted to be born to help sentient beings, then that will happen. But, it will not happen by karma though, because all the negative karma of all previous lives is purified in that moment of you recognising you nature of mind. Because there is no Ultimate karma, and so all the negative karma will be purified in that moment.

From there to the first level of Bodhisattva is quite close anyway, that would be the ideal realisation that we can and should pursue in this life and if not, then we should pray that it will be in the next life. So that is the highest or deepest we can go about compassion and devotion. After that you become embodiment of compassion and embodiment of devotion, so it is not really worth talking, you see?

Now I think we see roughly the definition of devotion and compassion, based on devotion, quite clearly. I hope this is beneficial for you.

Now I’d like to share with you one example. This is my favourite example of devotion. It is little cynical so watch out! But, really very special for me and this really, truly helped me to truly understand devotion in many ways. It’s a story about a great yogi, Drukpa Kunleg. You know he’s an Enlightened person, a great siddha, but he’s very mischievous. So one day he came to a beautiful temple… and I think temple should be like this you know, very beautiful, lots of gold, lots of wonderful things, nice alter and everything, and Buddha image is sitting there, wonderful one. But he is, with due respect, dressed and appearing quite terrible. He always looked like that, never wished etc. etc. Definitely not wearing a robe and very dirty, and I think you can image the worst. So he came into the shrine very disrespectfully, really disrespectfully, and walked right up to the alter and staring at Buddha, not even bowing. And he stood there for a long time staring at the Buddha. Then he said four sentences.

He said; “Long time ago you and I are the same, you are diligent, therefore you got Enlightened. (T.S. you know, sort of made it) I am lazy therefore I’m still wandering around, therefore, I bow to you.”

Then he behaved himself. Then he respectfully did three prostrations to the Buddha. After long staring. You know, it’s like a very old friend that you have been, you know fooling around, and all of a sudden that old friend made it, and you’re still running around. And one day you come to the palace of the old friend. So how would you behave… something like that.

So that is the truth. Buddha is nothing less and nothing more than one of us, same. But Buddha, because of the compassion is Enlightened 2,500 years before us. We, because obviously, slightly maybe having too much good time, I don’t know, but anyway, staying behind. So the devotion to the Buddha comes from exactly the Buddha’s deed. What Buddha is, and also relevantness of Buddha and us. So Drukpa Kunleg bowed to Buddha because he knows that Buddha’s compassion includes him also. So therefore it is relevant.

So this is a very important example for me, because in our society, our culture, devotion is very natural, just part of the family, part of the culture, part of the society. Very much like, if I’m not mistaken, in your society many things like that are, quite natural, maybe not the devotion, but many other things. You don’t have to put any effort it’s somehow built in. The culture becomes almost embodiment of certain things. So like that, the devotion is built in to our society and very natural. But when I come to the West where devotion and compassion have to be explained, it is difficult, because something you always had quite naturally as part of your life, and then somebody asks you about it, because you never thought about it. So you have to really say a lot and be adequate so many times to be more adequate. So in this way, for me, my understanding of devotion or feeling of devotion was there, but Drukpa Kunleg’s example shows me very clearly how to explain it. So that is one thing.

Then another area there, and this is an ordinary Tibetan saying, just worldly saying. But it also says a lot. For example, compassion and devotion is actually honour, isn’t it. If you are an honourable person, with principle, with clarity, you stick to your word, you stick to your commitment, and if you have that kind of grounding, then naturally good things happen. Even some circumstances very, very bad, you can handle it. We have a saying, maybe you will get shocked, but I will say it anyway. “Instead of being a friend with a dishonourable friend, it is better to be a friend with an honourable enemy.”

So this means, even you have an enemy, you know bad things; enemy supposed to harm you and hurt you. That is what enemy is for…(laughing)… but, an honourable enemy does not do that you see. Honourable enemy, if you are close to them, they will take care of you, because now you are being close, no more enemy, right?

Dishonourable friends will pull you apart. So even though friends are supposed to take care of you, honourableness is the most important thing. I think true devotion and compassion also builds on the honour and dedication with honour, which then give us another aspect of devotion.

So this much is enough for us today. Anyway, if you are a Buddhist, it is extremely precious to have the devotion to Buddha, and to you common cause to be Enlightened for the benefit of all, and to the living lineage which represents the Buddha, all the way up to now, and all the way in the future. And have that pure as possible is extremely important. On top of that, the other side is pure compassion, but if you have pure devotion, if you are totally devoted to attain Enlightenment for the benefit of sentient beings, then compassion is just there.

So I think the purpose of any of us trying to learn about this is to attempt to develop that. Not so much develop by putting special effort for compassion or devotion, I really don’t know there is such. But to be more honourable, more sincere, more clear in your mind and devote to Buddha and Enlightenment for what it is. And to be compassionate to all sentient beings for what it is. And you have it because of the relevantness of what you are and what they are, and the connection between you and them, between Buddha and sentient beings. So in this way it will happen naturally.

Okay, let’s dedicate the merit now.

Tai Situ Rinpoche 17.

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Because compassion is viewed as the seed of the Conquerors’ excellent harvest, the water that makes it grow, and the fruition [that ensures] it will continue to be enjoyed for a long time, I praise compassion at the beginning.

— Chandrakirti

出离与轮回
慧净法师

1.佛陀一开始讲经说法,就先说苦,把苦摆在前面,这并不是在吓唬我们,而是要我们认清这世间的事实,唯有认清事实、面对事实,这样才能解决事情、突破它、超越它,最后获得解脱。就好像一只凶猛的狗正在吠你、想咬你,这时如果你背对着它而逃跑,反而会被它咬,如果正面面对着它,它反而就吓跑了。面对这“三界无安,犹如火宅”的众苦、六道轮回的众苦,我们要面对它,面对,就会去寻求脱苦的方法。“人有诚心,佛有感应”,只要我们虔诚的追求,总有一天就会追求到解决的妙方。反之,如果不知苦、不晓得离苦,那就要永远受无穷无尽的苦了。为什么?因为人生最多也只不过数十寒暑,再怎么样的苦乐祸福,也只是这几十年而已,可是这一期的生命结束,并非就一了百了,等待我们的,是无穷尽的六道轮回,那岂不是由这短暂的苦,转而进入更广更大更长的苦?解决这三界六道的苦,其实不在天上,而是在我们人间,所以我们要把握有限的人生,追求永恒的解脱。

2.一个人如果不知有三界六道轮回,不信有三世因果的善恶报应,他就会认为人只不过是活一次,没有第二次;他会认为人只不过是死一次,死了就没有了,没有所谓的轮回;他只晓得有现生这一辈子,因此他一生所追求的就是如何使这一辈子快乐。但是如果确信有三世因果、善恶报应、六道轮回,而且了解人生无常、短暂,并且充满种种苦恼,那时他就会努力在这短暂的人生当中寻求未来永恒的解脱、永远的离苦得乐。

3.因为有过去世,才有今生今世,如果没有过去世,就没有今生今世。如果没有解脱的话,就还会还有未来世,那就无穷无尽。但是,如果给阿弥陀佛救度的话,就无所谓过去、现在、未来,因为往生极乐世界之后,生命都是永恒的,不老、不病、不死,永远没有六道轮回,反而有神通自在,可以乘愿还来六道中,救度生生世世以来自己的父母、兄弟、妻子、儿女、六亲眷属。

4.所谓烦恼业障、六道轮回,是真的还是假的?是假的。就像作梦,梦中的苦乐是真的还是假的?是假的。可是对一个没有醒过来的人而言,就一直在作梦,所谓大梦未醒;那如果醒过来的话,他看梦中的人,就清楚那是颠倒的、虚假的、是莫须有的,所谓“梦中明明有六趣,觉后空空无大千”。我们众生都有病,种种的烦恼、忌妒、筹量、分别、执着,这对一个心性比较平静的人来看,那些都是莫须有的。

5.佛性是本来就有的,不需要企求;而且是普遍都有的,你我他都有,天、人、地狱、饿鬼、畜生都有;而且是永恒的,因为它不会改变,也不会消失,只是因为我们都有贪瞋痴的障碍而无法显现,进而因为业力的牵引,使得佛性不但无法显现,反而一直无穷无尽地轮回六道,或者人天、或者驴胎马腹,或者地狱饿鬼,像运行的车轮一样,没有起头,也没有终点,一直在轮转。这个轮转的众生,如果没有恢复佛性的话,那就会一直轮转下去、一直痛苦下去。

6.学佛就是要脱离轮回、要成佛,这样讲起来,唯有念佛,信受弥陀对我们的悲心救度,才是真正的学佛,否则虽然学佛了,还不算圆满,为什么?因为还未出轮回。

7.我们这个肉体还在这个世间,还没有往生极乐世界,在有生之年难免还存在凡夫的心,贪着眷属,甚至贪着一切,所谓见惑思惑的贪瞋痴,以及微细的尘沙惑与根本无明无法降伏、断除,但是我们要清楚了解,不管如何,我们就是要往生极乐世界!

8.我们之所以有生命,不是因为有这个肉体,而是因为有阿赖耶识。阿赖耶识含藏着过去世以来三业行为的善善恶恶,我们所含藏的其实都是贪、瞋、痴、慢、疑,恶多善少,所以才会在六道里边来来去去头出头没。如果旷劫以来,阿赖耶识所含藏的没有贪瞋痴慢疑的话,那就会升华、超越三界六道轮回了。

9.我们之所以求救,要寻找一个彻底安稳的依靠,是因为我们都有罪业、都会堕落三恶道、都会永在六道轮回,所以必需要依靠一个能够让我们永远安稳不再入六道轮回的胜易妙法。

10.三界凡夫随业力自然升沉六道,自然受苦乐果报,故现今所见的大自然是凡夫共业使然,尚在三界,应当远离。昙鸾祖师说三界是“虚假、污染、颠倒、破坏、轮转、无穷”,“三界是生死凡夫流转之暗宅”,“三界是有漏邪道所生,长寝大梦,莫知悕出”。

11.所谓“世间”,三界都是世间,人的五戒、天的十善,乃至色界、无色界天的禅定,都还在六道轮回里面,这些就凡夫来讲是善业。可是如果跟信受弥陀救度、愿生弥陀净土、念佛往生极乐世界比较的话,那么这些善业也是恶业,不是真正的善业。

12.除非没有善恶报应、六道轮回;如果有的话,以善恶报应、六道轮回的镜子来反照自己,就知道自己几乎没有解脱的希望,而且地狱之火已经燃烧到自己的脚底了,将来一定堕落地狱。

13.修行者最后如果没有解脱生死轮回,或是没有往生极乐世界,只会在六道中轮转,来来去去。过去的无明引起现在的果报,现在的业力又引起未来的轮回,遇到善的因缘就行善积德,遇到修行的因缘就修行,遇到坏的因缘就造业,总之都是在六道中往返来去。

14.娑婆世界五浊恶世的众生,因为他们的业很杂,亦即他们的身口意很杂,千差万别,因此得到的苦乐境界也千差万别。生在人间就有所谓“四苦”、“八苦”,心理上的苦、生理上的苦、环境上的苦;六道当中每一道的苦又各不相同,所以说“苦乐万品”。以恶业来说有十恶,善业就有十善,当中各有轻重,所以感得的果报就有四生、苦乐万品、眷属若干。这是娑婆世界的情形。

15.人生是苦,千百万种苦。婚姻不美满,家庭不和顺,儿女不合心意,是最大的苦,要知道这些都是因缘和合、是讨债的。最根本的苦是轮回,一定要往生,否则,未来之苦将仍无尽。

16.不知道有三界六道轮回、善恶报应的人,他是悠悠忽忽地在过日子;知道的人,就会心有不安。这种不安,有时候是没有办法形容的,越是知道佛法,就越有那股“生死事大,无常迅速”的道心。

17.《法华经》言:“三界无安,犹如火宅,众苦充满,甚可怖畏。”世间之惬意事、乐事,都是相对,非究竟。乐是苦因,一息不存,便是来生,六道四生,随业受报,轮回未出,必堕地狱。若能体会地狱之痛苦,则一刻也不能自安。深悟无常,切求出要。

18.世间一般人都要追求富贵,都要完成高学历,追寻无边的知识,但不管他有多高的学历,多丰富的学问,如果他不相信有善恶报应,不知有三世因果、六道轮回,佛陀则说他是一个愚痴的人;反过来说,一个人即使没有受教育,不认识字,毫无文化,可是他相信有善恶报应、有三世因果、有六道轮回,而且也预先为自己寻找、准备解脱六道轮回的方法,那佛陀就会竖起大拇指,称赞他是一个有智慧的人。

19.人生每过一天就等于更接近地狱一天,再怎么样的功成名就,死了还是要跟阎罗王见面,还是要继续轮回。只在物质上帮助他、救济他,是一种世间善与慈悲爱心。若能进而让他了脱生死轮回,让他不再轮回、不再反覆受同样的苦,甚至能够让他成佛,永离六道轮回,这一种慈悲,岂不就是大慈悲!这种智慧,岂不就是大智慧!所以,从这一点来讲,弘扬净土法门的人,可以说是大慈悲、大智慧。

20.修行的目的就是要了脱生死,生死不了,危险太大;轮回未出,难免堕落。只要没有出离轮回,就难免在未来的生生世世当中堕落三恶道。

21.人人都可念佛,人人都可往生,所以,一切众生如同大海中的水族,而阿弥陀佛的救度如同大网,绝无漏网之鱼。

22.人生的苦,就是众生都具有贪瞋痴,瞋就像火,贪就像海,所以释迦牟尼佛说三界是火宅、六道是苦海,从地狱一直到非想非非想处天,到处都是苦海、都充满了大火,可说娑婆世界是众苦充满。而极乐世界怎么样?《阿弥陀经》说:“彼土何故名为极乐?其国众生,无有众苦,但受诸乐,故名极乐。”

Subhuti, do not think that when one gives rise to the highest, most fulfilled, awakened mind one needs to see all objects of mind as nonexistent, cut off from life. Please do not think in that way. One who gives rise to the awakened mind does not deny objects or say that they are nonexistent.

One who gives rise to the awakened mind should know that what is called a self or a person, a living being or a life span, is not so in essence but only in concept. The names of self, person, living being, or life span are names only. Subhuti, you should know that all the things of the world are like this, you should have confidence in their essence without names.

— The Buddha, Diamond Sutra

Happiness Comes from Your Own Mind
by Lama Zopa Rinpoche

Peace and happiness in life come when we free ourselves from the dissatisfied mind of desire. Satisfaction comes when we give ourselves freedom, or independence, from the unhappy mind of desire.

How do we free ourselves from the dissatisfied mind of desire and the other unhealthy minds that make our life unhappy? How do we fill up the emptiness in our heart? The answer is meditation. It is only through meditation practice that we can free ourselves from desire and other disturbing thoughts. And we then need to develop the good heart, not only not giving harm to other sentient beings but also benefiting them. Again that comes from meditation. That’s why we need to practice meditation.

No matter how many friends and other external things we have, that alone is not sufficient. We need friends, but no matter how many hundreds or even thousands of friends we have, that alone doesn’t bring us peace, happiness, and satisfaction. Even after we have found friends there is still something missing in our heart. We are not fully satisfied. That is because we have the dissatisfied mind of desire and lack loving kindness and compassion. Simply having friends is not sufficient to bring peace and happiness. We need to practice the good heart. What is missing is the good heart.

Also, no matter how much wealth we have, there’s still no peace, happiness, and satisfaction in our life. There is still something missing. Things are not perfect. Something else is needed. If we were able to obtain all the wealth in the world, or even if we were able to become just a millionaire, when we checked in our heart whether or not things were now perfect, we would still not be fully satisfied. There would still be something missing. There would be an empty place in our heart. This tells us that wealth alone is not sufficient to bring peace, happiness, and satisfaction.

What we need is something that frees us from the dissatisfied mind of desire and self-cherishing thought and brings satisfaction and the good heart. Again, the answer is meditation practice. This is what gives us freedom from the dissatisfied mind of desire, self-cherishing thought, and the other unhappy minds.

No matter how famous we are or how much power we have it is the same. Even if everyone in the whole world knew who we were, if we checked in our heart there would be something missing. Even though everything looked good on the outside, there would be something missing on the inside.

Again, what is missing is meditation practice, which transforms our mind from self-cherishing into cherishing other sentient beings, into loving kindness, compassion, and the good heart. Meditation also transforms the unhappy, dissatisfied mind of desire into the satisfied mind. Simply being famous or powerful cannot bring you this peace and happiness. Even if you are famous or powerful, it’s not enough. A free mind, a happy mind, a satisfied mind — all these come through meditation, not through external things. You have to obtain happiness from your own mind, through meditation. It is your own mind that stops your suffering and confusion; it is your own mind that brings you happiness.

Even if you had all the power in the world, if you didn’t have a good heart, that power could become dangerous. Without concern for others, the more power you got, the more dangerous you would become to other sentient beings in your country and in the world. It also means you would become more dangerous to yourself, since more harm to other sentient beings ultimately means more harm to yourself.

There is nothing wrong with having power — the problem is having power without having a good heart. Behind the power should be a good heart, which makes the power beneficial for the world and for all sentient beings. If there is no motivation of good heart for using the power, the power becomes like poison and is dangerous even to the person who has it. Having power is not sufficient. For the power to be safe, it has to come from the good heart.

You need meditation practice, even for your own peace, happiness, and satisfaction. It has to do with the mind, with your own mind. It’s not that somebody can transplant happiness into you, like transplanting a heart. The mind of a Buddha or some other holy being can’t be transplanted into you. Happiness and satisfaction have to come from your own mind. You have to transform the minds that bring problems to you and to others into healthy, peaceful, positive minds — such as loving kindness, compassion, and altruism — which bring peace and happiness to you and to others.

Trying to reach the great mansion of the authentic nature of reality without the steps of the authentic relative is not an approach the wise should take.

— Bhavaviveka

行深度苦证智
慧门禅师

1、器仗

摧破恶知及恶觉 按下提撕与举起

「行深」两字取自《心经》。禅宗重行,意思就是把禅宗的行进,行到最深层的境地,也就是深行。

凡夫依五蕴产生的妄想1,或心意识产生的心相,做为反映的依据,并误为真实,那就是《大乘起信论》谈到的因方故迷。迷真逐妄,被五蕴构成的小小空间束缚,被拘束在里面,误以为真实,而跳脱不出。我们常被「妄想颠倒,思量分别,好生恶死,知见解慧,欣静厌闹等心」迷惑,并以妄为真。这是因为认不出什么是真,所以把假的当成真。从唯识阿赖耶迷悟说的观点,来破心头大患的钉子 – 昏沉、念起、见起、境现、执法、执我、烦恼、造业、受报等十重迷2。有这么多钉子胶着在心头,隐隐作痛,所以宗密以六度万行,如各种不同的手术刀,逐一起出钉着胶着的心头大患。「从第一以怖苦发心对治受报身的钉子,挖走后以修五行觉妄念,到最后以细到无形无状的离念手术刀,来对治念起。离念后,所有的心头大患都被拿掉,破和合识就成佛了。这整个过程,就是行深般若波罗密多的智慧。大的过患以浅悟对治,细的过患用深悟对治。2逐渐进行到最深的迷源,所有过患灭尽。这是渐修方法的深行。

禅宗发现心中有任何心相,一时按下,就按下处看话头。只要用话头看定它、按住它,举起如手术刀的话头,再往按下处,不清楚处、不明白处探究明白。这种探究的作用力,与不清楚不明白的反作用力相击,就生起疑情。疑情自然滚动,磁吸阿赖耶识的种子往内深行,穷究下去。

「今稍有知非者,若要径截理会,须得这一念子爆地一破,方了得生死,方名悟入。」

当觉察到内心有形有状、会变化移动的心相时,即刻提撕,参话头,看准变动处按下。一看心相不动了,再从不动处,提起话头来参究,反复「提、觑、追」以穿透所有的幻化表相。最终能达到无明窠臼里,也就是生起这些现象的最深处。这时「话头中自有疑情,疑情中自有话头」互为动力,滚到阿赖耶识的窠臼里,最后把它一举爆破。话头就是爆破的炸药,疑情就是把普通炸药提升到浓缩铀的威力,又准又快又狠,塞到阿赖耶识窠臼,也就是攻入心头大患,钉钉胶着的大本营里引爆,不但将钉钉胶着的心头大患爆破,也把话头疑情一起爆破,当下虚空粉碎于无形,由此了脱生死而开悟。

所以参话头与六度万行的法门,是不同的修行方法,后者需要准备很多种工具。但是参参禅只要用一种无形的话头,心即能由外入内,逐渐深行。行到最深处,爆破五蕴产生的五种妄想,爆破了八识产生的所有心相,由识转成智。这时已无虚妄心相可追逐,如晴朗虚空的真心就出现了。所以禅宗参究的方法,能在这一期生命中就开悟,而了脱生死。禅宗的禅就是般若智慧。参禅如能径截理会,就能又准又快又狠,把这团即时可以引爆话头的疑情,埋入心头加以引爆,直得这一念子嚗地一破,直截了当离心意识。

参究要将颠倒妄想、思量、分别等的心,一一按下。看准了再按下处、不动处,再提起话头来追;疑情一起,自能行到产生幻化表相的源头,也就是阿赖耶识的窠臼。行者若要径截理会,一定是要确知心相是虚幻的。行者若不能确认八识产生的心相都是虚妄的,反把这些心相当成真,就无法径截理会。要确定明白我们所追逐执取的心相都是虚幻的,要清楚知道我们都在迷真逐妄,一直认为五蕴所产生的五种妄想,八识所产生的心相,可以帮我们解决一切问题,这是错误的。我们一定要确实知道这种错误,才能生起直接了当的心,透过深行,穿透幻化的表相,回到如如不动的本心。要彻底了知前非,了知似是而非的非法,绝对不是正法,绝对不是真正的佛法。这样才是径截理会的行者。

行者发现心中有形有状会变动的都是虚幻,必须即刻提撕话头,并在提撕时一觑觑定,穷追深究。这时,所有有形有状的心相种子,都被逼回到无明的窠臼里,而无明种子马上蠢动反弹,一窝峰涌现。所以,一看到心中有任何变化,要即刻提话头觑追,追到更深的地方。这时不清楚的心头大患会变得清楚,不明白的心头大患会变得明白,因而激发出更强的觑追力量,迫使无明窠臼里蠢动的种子,发出更强大的反弹力量。禅宗就是借用这种力量,来提炼疑情的动力而成疑团,疑团一旦爆破,可以爆得虚空粉碎。

识心一动,必须即刻提撕话头加以按下,只就按下处看个话头,并往内行深穷究,直得心意识不动,化解一切思量卜度分别…等等的心。这时,「不得作有无会,不得作道理会,不得向意根下思量卜度,不得向扬眉瞬目处挆根,不得向语录上做活计,不得扬在无事甲里,不得向举起处承当,不得向文字中举证。」3所以说,话头是摧毁恶知恶觉的器杖。但向十二时中,四威仪内时时提撕,时时举觉,只要内心变出有形有相的东西出来,即刻分分秒秒回到时时提撕,时时举觉,参究狗子还有佛性也无?云:无。提撕举觉意,在加强一觑觑定的力量。提话头就要觑追,这些都是推动话头疑情愈行愈深的动力。从幻化表相一直到藏识窠臼里才引爆。每次的提、觑、追,要又准又快又狠。行深往窠臼里下毒手引爆就成功了。参禅把无明窠臼打破了,虽然仍有五蕴身存在,却能时时保持在离念的境界,这就是照见五蕴皆空。

禅宗祖师的方法,全都是实践力行心经的第一段话「观自在菩萨,行深般若波罗密多时,照见五蕴皆空,度一切苦厄。」所以参禅是离苦得乐最好的法门。我们经常被五蕴产生的五种妄想拘住,被八识产生的心相拘住。现在将藏识的窠臼爆破了,疑团嚗地一破,纠着不清的心就消失于无形。虽然五蕴八识仍旧在运作,但已由识转为全智了,所以不起心意识性,故能穿透心中有形有状,会变化的心相,而不被拘住。心阔大到无边无际,自在了,不追逐执取,常住不动,不被业风吹动。心自由自在,运作自如而达观自在的境地了。

2、逼拶

一切理会总不得 夺人财而令纳财

我们将《大慧宗杲语录》的玄关打开,见到了全像。诸佛菩萨现全身,令我们一目了然,行深般若波罗密多不是秘密,并不困难。这玄关打开后,我们就自自然然地能行深,自然能照见五蕴皆空,能度一切苦厄,成为观自在。所以观自在不是只有一个,大家都可以成为观自在。当我们成为观自在时,就不会觉得行深般若波罗密多是秘密而有困难,而是自在现成的。最主要的是要打开经典义理,或祖师语录隐藏的玄机,当玄机关卡打开了,就一切皆办。

参话头就是要拿一个公案做为参究的主题或话题,时时提撕、举觉、参究这个公案,也就是要透过提、觑、追,才能行深般若波罗密多。禅宗的参禅不一定要靠一个固定的公案来做为话头,才能推你进入行深,也可透过师徒间的对话,来逼迫行者不得不去行深,这方法就是逼拶。

五蕴产生的五种妄想或八识心田的心相,时时刻刻都成念起。念起后一路下滑到烦恼造业受报。我们不容易察觉到念起、见起、执法、执我,只有到了烦恼重时才知道,这时烦恼已经造业了。当我们的受报身受苦难时,不知道这是自己的业所形成的,反而另找受苦的原因。师父发现行者烦恼、造业,或执我、执法、境现、见起、念起时,会马上将行者的心逼拶回去深究。行者一追逐妄境,就应当立刻将心逼拶回去,往内心作行深的工夫。也就是把往外拋的心,唤回自家,而不追逐妄境。不许行者长出毛角,长出来就「卡」掉。所以「逼拶」是禅宗师父逼行者深行,往内追求的方法,般若波罗密多智慧就能增长出来。心往外拋,执取心相,迷真逐妄即是愚痴无明。师父逼行者归而求之,回头转脑,就无法执取虚妄的心相。虚妄的心相自然消失,无可追逐了,自心立刻觉醒,般若智慧也就增长了。

大慧宗杲怎么逼拶行者?当行者心意识一动或五蕴妄想一动,他即刻提话逼问,逼得行者往内深行,而砍掉心识的一切流动。妙喜室中常问禅和子,「唤作竹篦则触,不唤作竹篦则背;不得下语,不得无语;不得思量,不得卜度;不得扬在无事甲里,不得于举起处承当;不得良久,不得作女人拜、绕禅床,不得拂袖便行。一切总不得,速道速道。」4只要有人问法,他就拿着竹篦逼问。若是唤作竹篦则触,意思就是碰触了机峰,行者动了心意识。假设我举起一支竹篦,你叫它做竹篦,是触动了你心意识的记忆,不叫它做竹篦又违背了常理和惯例。行者心意识一动,师父就逼拶,形成一长串连珠炮似的不得…一切总不得,还要你速道!速道!你速道时又不可以随便拿个四句偈来充数。既不能开口,又不能不开口。一开口就动了心意识!也不能没话说,因为你骨子里还在胡思乱想。

宗杲要革除行者应付逼拶的一切花样,所以说,不得思量,不得卜度(猜测),不得扬在无事甲里,就是不得装傻、发呆,放空无记。他又说,不得于举起处承当(不可在逼你的地方去做文章),也不得抢竹篦或挡开竹篦,又不得良久(站在那儿拟议一段时间)。要你当下拿出见解来,让你没片刻空档沉思拟议。也不得做女人拜(就是不开口,单用肢体动作)。不得绕禅床(像永嘉玄觉绕六祖),亦不得拂袖而行。只要心意识一动就叫停,一切总不得,要赶快拿出见解来。这些逼拶过程,就是逼禅和子的心,往内走往内深行。当行者的心愈往内深行,穿透过所有幻化表相,般若智慧就愈高,这就是禅师逼拶的功德。禅宗的参禅很简单,禅师想尽办法让行者归而求之,愈求愈行愈深,而开展出般若智慧。

宗杲说:你要夺却竹篦,我且许你夺却。我说唤作拳头则触,不唤作拳头则背,你又如何夺?更饶你道个请和尚放下着,我且放下着,我唤作露柱则触,不唤作露柱则背,你又如何夺?我唤作山河大地则触,不唤作山河大地则背,你又如何夺?时有舟峰长老说:「某甲看和尚竹篦子话,如籍没却人家财产了,更要人家纳物事。」4宗杲说:「你譬喻得极妙,我真要你纳物事,你无所从出,便须讨死路去也。或投河、或赴火,拼得命方始死,得死了却缓缓地再活起来。唤你作菩萨则欢喜,唤你作贼汉则恶发,依前只是旧时人。所以古人道『悬崖撒手,自肯承当,绝后再苏,欺君不得。』到这里始得契竹篦子话。」4

要「逼拶」不是那么容易的!就是要将行者逼到死角无路可走,看你怎么办?逼得你狗急跳墙,逼到悬崖,前是悬崖,后有追兵,如此一再进逼下去。你想夺却竹篦我就许你夺吧!那我便改说:「唤作拳头则触,不唤作拳头则背。」你又怎么夺呢?

逼到行者的心意识大死一番,全不起作用。再活过来同样用心意识,但已经不起心意识性了。完全无心意识的思量、分别、我执等作用,一切识全转为智了,一切平等了。禅宗的逼拶,一路来都在逼行者归而求之,往内愈行愈深,行到无路可走,到达颠扑不破的无明窠臼里,在这里虽然大死一番,却可以让你拼得出一条活路来,也就可以大活一番。也就是打死心意识的作用,才能大活一番。所以禅七说打七,即是要打死第七末那识的俱生我执法执。打死了再活过来,就不会执取藏识的流动为实我实法,不再迷真逐妄,因为已悟妄归真了。所以禅宗参禅一法,就是一路追杀,让你不得不往内走,不得不往内愈行愈深。当愈行愈深就愈能穿透幻化表相,而不会去执取它,也不会误认幻化表相及藏识种子的流动是真实的。只要不拘执它,知道它是虚幻的,就可以悟妄归真。所以禅宗的参禅法门都在逼我们直接实践力行《心经》的第一段话,「观自在菩萨,行深般若波罗密多时,照见五蕴皆空,度一切苦厄。」不必如悟有十重般地一再换手术刀,单用一把如尚方宝剑的一个公案或话头一路追赶下去就成了,也不一定要用公案话头来逼你,师徒只要在对话中就可以逼了,一直追逼到心意识不动,这时就可开悟。所以禅宗在中土兴盛以后,从达摩祖师代代相传,一脉传承,都是此法。虽然从初祖到六祖的开悟公案,都没标明行深或生起疑情。其实每个公案里,都经历行深及生起疑情的过程。只是到了大慧宗杲,才把历代祖师逼拶深行,而展开般若智慧的历程,加以剖析解说。这是他的精髓所在也是他对禅家的贡献。

行者被逼到走头无路,看是死路一条了,撞了上去,却发现一切障碍都不见了。这就是悬崖撒手,大死一番,绝后再生。逼拶是禅宗一脉传承下来的法门,是最直接了当的方法。不必准备那么多手术刀,也不必有那么多招式。单单教你最有效的最后一招,其他蹲马步的那些招式都不必用了。

我们生生世世对习气最熟悉,对去除习气的话头却很生疏!所以必须先将话头抱紧,练得熟悉了,习气自然就因疏远而生疏了。也就是话头从生疏转成熟练,习气由烂熟转为生疏。唯有如此举起话头,才能又准、又快、又狠往习气处砍下去。习气消尽,自然离苦得乐了。

神秀的「身是菩提树,心如明镜台;时时勤拂拭,勿使惹尘埃。」是渐修法门。慧能的「菩提本无树,明镜亦非台,本来无一物,何处惹尘埃。」是顿悟法门。

慧能的本来无一物,不仅是传递空的讯息,而且发挥到淋漓尽致。既然本来无一物,当然就没有受苦的人,也没有让人受的苦。既然本来无一物,当然就没有一个物境,可以让人感到恐怖。既然本来无一物,当然就没有一个人在受生死轮回。既然没有人受生死轮回,当然就无有恐怖。参禅逼拶一法就是要把行者逼到显现「本来无一物」的景象。也就是让行者体证到生死轮回与涅槃(轮涅)是一体两面,而不生任何执取。所以说,参禅看话头是实践力行慧能「菩提本无树,明镜亦非台,本来无一物,何处惹尘埃」未经人为的扭曲改变,呈现了心性的自然原貌。「本来无一物,何处惹尘埃」就是佛性的显现,也是开悟成佛的最高境界。

注1 大正新修大藏经第十九册 No. 945《大佛顶如来密因修证了义诸菩萨万行首楞严经卷第十》

是故如来与汝发明五阴本因同是妄想。汝体先因父母想生汝心非想。则不能来想中传命。如我先言心想醋味口中涎生。心想登高足心酸起。悬崖不有醋物未来。汝体必非虚妄通伦。口水如何因谈醋出。是故当知汝现色身。名为坚固第一妄想。即此所说临高想心。能令汝形真受酸涩。由因受生能动色体。汝今现前顺益违损二现驱驰。名为虚明第二妄想。由汝念虑使汝色身。身非念伦汝身何因。随念所使种种取像。心生形取与念相应。寤即想心寐为诸梦。则汝想念摇动妄情。名为融通第三妄想。化理不住运运密移。甲长发生气销容皱。日夜相代曾无觉悟。阿难此若非汝云何体迁。如必是真汝何无觉。则汝诸行念念不停。名为幽隐第四妄想。又汝精明湛不摇处名恒常者。于身不出见闻觉知。若实精真不容习妄。何因汝等曾于昔年睹一奇物。经历年岁忆忘俱无。于后忽然覆睹前异。记忆宛然曾不遗失。则此精了湛不摇中。念念受熏有何筹算。阿难当知此湛非真。如急流水望如恬静。流急不见非是无流。若非想元宁受想习。非汝六根。互用合开此之妄想无时得灭。故汝现在见闻觉知中串习几。则湛了内罔象虚无。第五颠倒细微精想。

五蕴(元素)所产生的妄想
色蕴根本妄想(坚固妄想)
受蕴虚明妄想
想蕴融通妄想
行蕴幽隐妄想
识蕴细微颠倒精想

注3 大正新修大藏经第四十七册 No. 1998A《大慧普觉禅师语录》大慧普觉禅师书卷第二十六

今稍有知非者。若要径截理会。须得这一念子嚗地一破。方了得生死。方名悟入。然切不可存心待破。若存心在破处。则永劫无有破时。但将妄想颠倒、思量分别、好生恶死、知见解会、欣静厌闹,一时按下。只就按下处看个话头。僧问赵州。狗子还有佛性也无。州云无。此一字子。乃是摧许多恶知恶觉底器仗也,不得作有无会,不得作道理会,不得向意根下思量卜度,不得向扬眉瞬目处挅根,不得向语路上作活计,不得扬在无事甲里,不得向举起处承当,不得向文字中引证。但向十二时中四威仪内,时时提撕,时时举觉,狗子还有佛性也无?云无。不离日用。试如此做工夫看,月十日便自见得也。一郡千里之事。都不相妨。古人云。我这里是活底祖师意。有甚么物能拘执他?若离日用别有趣向。则是离波求水。离器求金。求之愈远矣。

注4 妙喜室中常问禅和子。唤作竹篦则触。不唤作竹篦则背。不得下语。不得无语。不得思量。不得卜度。不得拂袖便行。一切总不得。尔便夺却竹篦。我且许尔夺却。我唤作拳头则触。不唤作拳头则背。尔又如何夺。更饶尔道个请和尚放下着。我且放下着。我唤作露柱则触。不唤作露柱则背。尔又如何夺。我唤作山河大地则触。不唤作山河大地则背。尔又如何夺。有个舟峰长老云。某看和尚竹篦子话。如籍没却人家财产了。更要人纳物事。妙喜曰。尔譬喻得极妙。我真个要尔纳物事。尔无从所出。便须讨死路去也。或投河赴火。拼得命方始死。得死了却缓缓地再活起来。唤尔作菩萨便欢喜。唤尔作贼汉便恶发。依前只是旧时人。所以古人道。悬崖撒手自肯承当。绝后再苏欺君不得。到这里始契得竹篦子话。复说偈云。佛之一字尚不喜。有何生死可相关。当机觌面难回互。说甚楞严义八还。