但自問觀心
文|果行

一、 生死事大知多少

孔子曰:「未知生,焉知死。」中國人對於生死的觀念及態度,多將之視一種無奈的自然現象,稀有深入探究其因者。然生死真不可知嗎?佛陀早在二千多年前詳述其事,不得不令人歎佛陀的大智慧。回顧十二年護理生涯,日日接觸的是生老病死;不論於急診室、病房、產房,往往於忙碌中迎生送死,無視亦無知於臨終者的心理活動、或呱呱墜地新生命的感受。生死大事未曾於心弦彈過一個音符,對於從死到生的過程渾渾噩噩、迷迷茫茫,可謂愚昧至極。直到有日見將出院的病癒者驟逝,震撼非同小可,始意會到有一天亦將身臨其境,激發我探究人生及宇宙之謎,而步入佛門。

近閱《瑜伽師地論‧意地》有關死生部份,不禁毛骨聳然,心隱隱作痛,欲哭無淚。倘若早年能認知生死過程,則有助重病者安然面臨死亡,隨念往生善道;然而卻在醫護人員不知情之急救下,徒增其痛苦,反墮三惡道;此誰之過?生死現象如花開花謝、月之陰晴圓缺;然因有情眾生之我愛執著、妄想憶念,而產生種種抗拒的心理活動。想到己之將死,不但棄捨身體,並將永離所愛之人事物、名聞利養等,永失熟悉之環境而到一未知的處所;其心中的恐懼、無奈、焦慮,猶如掉落大海般無助地掙扎。當此之際,若能適時擲塊浮木以安其心是多麼重要!

《瑜伽論》云:「善心死時,安樂而死;將欲終時,無極苦受逼迫於身。惡心死時,苦惱而死;將命終時,極重苦受逼迫於身。又,善心死者,見不亂色相;不善心死者,見亂色相。」是故除了生時曾造重大善業或惡業,即當隨其重業而生者(隨業),其臨終前心念所繫之善惡念,往往為趣向何道的主流(隨念)。由此可見, 所謂「臨終關懷」,除現下一般所熟知之助念外,請法師開示佛法增其正念,或令親屬助其憶善事等,確有其必要性。

然而,生存時即應心常存善念成習、多積集善法功德,或熟觀諸法畢竟空、無我無我所;否則臨命終時或神智昏迷、或病痛纏身,雖有他人幫助,亦難保證能正念分明、不墮三塗。由此深感院長於課堂中語重深長、苦口婆心勸修四念處的用心。當然,能於今生證無生法忍是件可賀之事;縱未成就,於平時能消融生死、榮辱、貴賤等分別於九宵雲外,淡化根深蒂固之我相、人相、眾生相、壽者相,達到熟練的程度。如此則臨終前容易提起正念,不為妄境所迷;心不顛倒,意不散亂,若願往生淨土者,即能成功。

《維摩詰所說經》曰:「善不善孰為本?身為本;身孰為本?……顛倒想孰為本?無住為本。」無住者,無明也。未能與第一義諦相應的凡夫俗子,念念無非無明, 念念無不顛倒虛妄;此即盲目不見自心三藏十二部,焉能念念遍知一切法?生死死生、無窮無盡,舉頭望天,烏雲彌佈;但自問觀心:愚夫長夜,何日光耀萬里晴空,碧海連天?

二、 糞坑裡的摩尼珠

人身難得今已得,佛法難聞今已聞;感恩於佛菩薩大慈悲之加被,及院長諄諄善誘,漸從聞思熏習——一切現象剎那生滅、瞬息變化,無非幻起幻滅的虛妄境界;不論是非善惡,時過則境遷,無有實法,無有恆長不變異的我。一切法不出自心,故境無好醜,好醜由心生;森羅萬象,如夢幻泡影、如露如電,無須捕風捉影,亦無須在意利、衰、毀、譽、稱、譏、苦、樂。猶如蘭生幽谷,不求名聞而自有名;蓮生污泥,不距穢臭而自芳香。風塵僕僕過路客,何須多事投石起漣漪;春風吹縐一潭秋湖,干卿底何事?

然由於自身鈍根慧淺、業重福薄,加上無始來的習性如雨後春筍,誠如龐居士所說:「出家捨煩惱,煩惱還同在」。如是苦苦惱惱度日,內心的昏沉散亂、貪瞋癡等煩惱,像是夏日蒼蠅、秋天落葉,揮不勝揮,掃不勝掃,精疲力盡又無可奈何。往往雄心萬丈瓦解於寸絲習性,每每備盡艱辛力執持糞器;但自問觀心:何日方能蠲除污穢,重現摩尼珠?

三、 孤海中的一艘船

離言的諸法實相本無可說;但佛之大慈大智,深知眾生根性,無言說則難契入法性,故善巧方便說法四十九年,後經佛弟子精心結集成浩瀚三藏,遺惠後人;若能依法聞思修,契入第一義諦者,則生死一步跨過,超脫苦海彼岸。

凡夫的貪瞋癡慢疑,源自於執著畢竟空的一切法為實有,及有個恆常不變異的我在輪迴。俗說:「擒賊先擒王」,所以修行表面上是滅除貪瞋癡,實質上是破除執著我、法為實的執取心;有執著心的凡夫,舉心動念便是染污不淨。如《維摩經》曰:「何謂病本?謂有攀緣。從有攀緣,則為病本。何所攀緣?謂之三界。云何斷攀緣?以無所得,若無所得,則無攀緣。何謂無所得?謂離二見。何謂二見?謂內見、外見,是無所得。」以無所得心行於日常生活中,把周遭生活圈子當作一部藏經,視逆境為磨鍊心志,順境為考驗功夫,如同秋菊傲霜、冬梅耐雪,若能於日用事中陶鍊無取、無捨、無執的心行,方為菩提道的根據。

陳年糞坑非一年半載能潔淨,無始來的執著,又豈一生、二生所能破除?所以,修行者須以日積月累的功夫、堪耐孤寂的忍力,加上逆水行舟愈挫愈勇的毅力,來成就湛然無所有的智慧。往往於漫長艱辛的修行過程中,常有山窮水盡的情景;若不氣餒,繼續努力,自會發現峰迴路轉的康莊大道。如一艘孤零零的船,在三界生死大海的驚濤駭浪中行駛;但自問觀心:何日方能越苦海、登彼岸?

All things are empty of their own identities. This concept fixed on emptiness has dissolved in itself. Free of concept, holding nothing in mind, is in itself the path of the Buddhas. For the most fortunate ones, I have made these concise words of heartfelt advice. Through this, may every single sentient being be established in Mahamudra.

— Naropa

Sasanaramsi Burmese Buddhist Temple, Singapore

You are always with your practice
by His Holiness the 16th Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje

I would like to say is that people definitely have to work and support themselves. When you have the enlightened attitude you have a responsibility to the people around you, to your country. You care about them. You are always with your practice. You are inseparable from it. You seize opportunities to benefit others and you will benefit others in whatever way you can.

You have been in this country. You were born in this country. Many people who will read this, are from families that have been here for generations. This country has been an important place for you. You have to offer respect for your grandparents and you must live a decent life, a dignified life that upholds the traditions of your ancestors, that meets the approval of society, your parents and yourself. If you are really going to serve this country and help its people, this seems like a reasonable way, rather than belonging to this party and that party, and getting involved in this competition and that competition, and all kinds of politics. As practitioners of the Dharma we don’t have to deny politics and reject politics, but we don’t have to play those games, either. It is not necessary. It is not important. It is not needed.

If you are working, may be in a hospital, you can see how you might have the opportunity and responsibility to help people. In the same way, what ever work you have taken, there are definitely people that you can benefit. So you should serve your people, serve your country, not expecting your country to serve you. And that’s the part of the practice of the Dharma. Not working is not taking responsibility.

If you are practitioner of the Mahayana teachings, that means you have something to be proud of, something to be worthy of, something to be descent for. But many people go around like some kind of outcast, in rags, with long hair, unwashed, as if you are a drug addict or something. This is not the proper way to present yourself. You are not maintaining your respect, you are not respecting Dharma that you are practicing, and you are not creating the proper outlook that the excellent Dharma is worthy of.

This is the message to the practitioners of Dharma that they must be dignified internally as well as externally, and their internal dignity must reflect outwardly also. We are not some drug addicts. Wearing the descent clothes, and being a descent human being, and serving your country, your people, serving the Dharma, and also yourself, being a self-respectful person is the Dharma path. How are you to benefit beings by looking as if you are completely discarded from the society?

By exposing that appearance, you are not taking the responsibility or you are not reflecting the enlightened attitude. If you are practicing the enlightened attitude, you should naturally be able to attract people so that when people see you, they might think, “Yes, these people definitely seem to be descent people, I think I could relate to them, and could ask something of these people. They might even be able to help me.” So in this way, you appear capable of giving help, or, at least capable of giving some directions to them for the help.

We are proud of ourselves as examples of the Dharma. If you are going around in rags, not taking care of your body, and going in the world like a misfit, it makes a very bad impression of that Dharma Center that you are involved with, and also as a person of this country, which means that you bring disrespect and a bad impression to this country and it’s people.

These are certain points that before I leave, I would like to offer to people so that they can use it. I hope that whoever hears these words, whether you are a Dharma practitioner or not, or whether you have entered into Buddhism or not, I hope that it will make some sense to you. It comes sincerely and truly, not with any put-on, or masquerade or diplomacy, but truly-straight and clean.

With integrity and sincerity you can serve beings, and as you work in the Dharma, you will serve many beings. And that is the greatness of the Mahayana teachings and practice. You don’t have to be a drop out from the country, the society or family. You are not. Cause, you have dignity.

Omniscience comes about through the elimination of the afflictive and the epistemic obscuration. Here, the afflictions are passion and so on. They are called the afflictive obscuration because they block the vision of what is real. And when a person sees the reality of that which is to be abandoned and that which is to be taken up but does not know it in all of its aspects and is not capable of explaining it to others, that is the epistemic obscuration. In that case, because one has directly realised selflessness, there is the elimination of the afflictive obscuration. But the [elimination] of the epistemic obscuration for one who has seen selflessness comes about through the intensive, continuous, and long-term cultivation [of that realisation].

— Kamalasila

智慧人生
向扬法师

在這個社會,人人都想讓自己過着富有、舒適、快樂和健康的生活,可是往往在事與願違下,卻要面對很多自己沒有想到的問題!難以招架,不知所措。

在無可奈何下,只有走一步看一步,或把問題一拖再拖,甚至將問題轉嫁他人,不關己事,最後把本來簡單或易解的問題,都搞到一發不可收拾,與人結怨,互相攻擊,互相傷害、互相誹謗、互相破坏,而衍生成仇恨。

在一念之差下,做了錯事又犯了法,上法庭接受審判,最後必须面對罰款,或坐牢或兩者兼施,讓自己活在苦惱中,怨聲載道,不知如何是好?

而問題的出現,皆离不開以下几個道理:

(一)在自己面對困難時,總覺得沒有一個真心朋友願意伸出援手,幫助自己解决問題,因此對朋友懷恨在心,日以累積而變成了仇恨,對朋友懷着報復的心。

(二)因為小時常被人欺负、戲弄、侮辱,甚至被人侵犯,造成心理不平衡,覺得在這世上沒有一個能夠真正了解自己的人,對大伙不存有任何信任,慢慢產生与世隔絕的心態,把自己封閉在自己郁悶的世界裏。或變成極端古怪的性情,專做一些讓人難以理解的事情,引起社會的恐慌,人心惶惶。

(三)在公司裏,被老板欺壓、被同事嘲笑,又得不到家人的體諒,郁悶的心情得不到安慰。怨恨又不服的心,因而漸漸建立,并在忍無可忍之下,產生了報復的心態。

(四)或在工作時,因为自己的某種古怪心態,讓人感到不舒服,造成大家對你的不滿,漸漸的與他人結起了仇恨。

(五)因為自己傲慢的心態,(唯我獨尊)從不聽取他人的意見,在處理事情時,往往把事情給搞砸了。 又因為面子的關係,不敢承擔,讓自己活在尷尬中,經不起他人的指指點點,而懷起仇恨的心態等等。

以上種種的問題,如果每個人都能夠以智慧的方向作考量,一一都能獲得巧妙的解決,因為只要了解問題的緣起,(事情的演變、過程,或來龍去脈),就能了解息滅問題的方法,而獲得智慧幸福的生活。(自在無憂)

智慧的建立,有以下8個方法,讓大家作考量:

(1)教法:

讓自己先明白自己的作為,面對問題時,該如何去處理。首先,要了解眼睛的作為。大家都知道,眼睛本為看東西時,讓自己獲得眼前的訊息,而決定如何轉向,可是其中的道理鮮為人知。

其奧妙的作為,不單單只為轉向,其更微妙的用意,是要讓大家清楚看到眼前事與物的出現,是如何建立與開始,過程的轉變,還有最後息滅的道理,因人而異。因為眼睛所看到的東西,事與物,很快被記錄在腦意識中。

1.1 不管是靜止不動的物件:如建築物、用具它的建立與作為,因人而異,因為時代的轉變,才有新建與淘汰的轉變,這種轉變是讓我們理解萬物皆無常的道理:有成必有住、有住必有壞、有壞必成空。在這種種的過程中, 就因為被眼睛所看見而清楚記在腦意識中或在歷史的記載中而獲取的訊息,明白無常的道理,不再計較事物的好與壞,輕安而居,煩惱自然息滅。

1.2 或是漂浮不定的人與事:在眼前所出現的人與事,那一個是永遠不變的道理,今天的喜、 怒、哀、樂。明天的悲、歡、离、合。万事求不得的苦。甚至有生必有老、有老必有病、有病必有死。以上種種的感覺清楚的被記在腦意識中,讓我們更了解人生的無常,而更珍惜眼前的人與事,不再計較他人的過錯,和睦相處,伸出援手。自己有錯必改,他人有缺,定當幫助其改過自新,讓他朝向健康的大道前進,何樂而不為呢?

(2)理法:

在明白了以上的道理,自己會更珍惜眼前的家人、 朋友、同事、鄰居,甚至曾經與自己有過磨擦的 夙敵。因為之前自己在處理事物時,都是以不平等的心態對待他人,斤斤計較,嫌東嫌西,不在呼他人的感受,讓對方產生莫名的煩惱與怨恨, 日以累積,而造成對方的種種傷害,間接的也傷害到了自己,怨親的對付,夙敵的破壞,人事的改變,雖然有錢、有權、有身份、有地位,卻活得不開心病苦纏身,煩惱重重,何樂之有?

唯以真誠的心態、平等的對待、歡喜的接待、恭敬的禮待、用心的盡責、互相的幫助。不再計較、 不再仇恨、不再傷害、不再妄語、不再兩舌、不再惡口、不再綺語。心相轉向智慧,就有如雨過 天晴,日日皆好日,年年皆好年,何樂而不為呢?

(3)智法:

不再有怨恨的纏縛,不再有夙敵破壞,不再有記恨的煩惱。換來平靜的心,清晰的思维,種種的過失,不再重演,種種的過去,換來新生的智慧,以往種種的無明(不清不楚的人生),讓自己明白自己的過失,造就了種種不必要的人為傷害。

傷害了家人、傷害了朋友、傷害了曾經幫過自己的人。利用了家人對你的信任、利用了朋友對你的信任、利用了曾經幫過自己的人對你的信任。 失去了家人對你的愛戴、失去了朋友對你的愛戴、失去了曾經幫過你的人對你的愛戴。這種種的過失,不再重演。就因為如此,眼前的路,有了智慧光明的照耀,讓我我從黑暗中走向光明,何樂而不為呢?

(4)斷法:

明白了種種緣起之后,自己已經不再困擾在迷惑中,因為知道了種種問題的出現,皆在自己心生貪欲、嗔恚、愚癡,而造就了自己對他人產生的仇恨、忌妒、爭鬥,讓自己陷入苦惱中。既然明白了這個道理,也肯定了自己的覺醒。唯有遠離記恨,仇報的衍生,斷除種種的邪見,(不平等心態,)所有的一切苦惱,不攻自破,何樂而不為呢?

(5)行法:

從此行在自在中,不再有仇惱、不再有迷惑、不 再有貪欲、不再有嗔恚、不再有愚癡。在家庭, 負起自己的責任,照顧好父母。夫妻間,要互相體諒與恩愛。兄弟姐妹間,要互相尊重與和氣。 對儿女,要負起養育与教育之心,讓他們得到健康與安心的成長。

對鄰居,常保持關懷與問候的心。對師長,常保持恭敬與感恩的心。對朋友,常保持誠懇和援助的心。對公司,常以歡喜與盡責的心工作。對老板,常以真誠與盡心的扶持。對社會,常伸出援手,(只要自己能力所能做到)絕不推卸責任。對國家,常以保衛與盡忠的心。起居輕安,何樂而不為呢?

(6)位法:

因為自己的誠懇與盡責,對家人負起了責任。對鄰居的關懷與問候,對師長的恭敬與感恩。對朋友的誠懇與援助。對公司的歡喜與盡責。對老板的真誠與盡心。對社會,常伸出援手。

對國家,常負起保衛與盡忠的心。如此廣大的心量,自然獲得大家對你的尊敬與愛戴,大家對你的擁護,是語言所無法表達的,自己高貴的身份,因為自己的無私,自然建立,何樂而不為呢?

(7)因法:

因為自己已經遠離了邪見,(種種之前所建立起的錯誤觀念)而有了正确的方向,不再制造苦惱,覺 知:善有善報、惡有惡報,不是不報、時辰未到, 遠離因果輪迴的束縛,何樂而不為呢?

(8)果法:

因為自己斷除了苦受的纏縛,而獲得輕安自在的心裏,這種感覺,是語言與文字所不能解說得清楚的,唯有無苦無惱的心情方能體驗和感覺到,如此的勝境,大家本來就已具足,只是無明,(不明白其中的微妙)暫時把自己給遮蔽,只要大家放下仇恨與憂慮,如此微妙的心境,自然顯現無余。

The basic nature of our mind is essentially good. The Buddha taught that all beings are buddhas covered by momentary obscuration; when those obscurations are removed, they are real buddhas. The true identity of every sentient being, not just human beings, is a state of unconditioned suchness. This is the basic nature as it is, pure and perfect. We have an inherent capacity to care for others and to understand; it is not a product of education or upbringing. To practise the dharma means simply to develop and nurture these intrinsic qualities. That is our task, our responsibility.

— Chokyi Nyima Rinpoche