如何降伏其心
虚云老和尚

《金刚经》上须菩提问世尊:“善男子,善女人,发阿耨多罗三藐三菩提心,应云何住,云何降伏其心?”佛说:“应如是住,如是降伏其心。”

所谓降者,就是禁止的意思,使心不走作就是降伏其心。所说发菩提心,这个心是人人本具、个个不无的,一大藏教人只说此心。

世尊夜睹明星,豁然大悟,成等正觉时,叹曰:

“奇哉!一切众生具有如来智慧德相,但以妄想执着不能证得。”

可见人人本来是佛、都有德相,而我们现在还是众生者,只是有妄想执着罢了,所以《金刚经》叫我们要如是降伏其心。

佛所说法,只要人识得此心。

《楞严经》说:“汝等当知,一切众生从无始来生死相续,皆不知常住真心性净明体,用诸妄想,此想不真,故有轮转。”达摩西来,只是直指人心,见性成佛,当下了然无事。

法海禅师参六祖,问曰:“即心即佛,愿垂指谕。”祖曰:“前念不生即心,后念不灭即佛。成一切相即心,离一切相即佛。”

智通禅师看《楞伽经》约千余遍,不会三身四智,礼六祖求解其义,祖曰:“三身者,清净法身,汝之性也;圆满报身,汝之智也;千百亿化身,汝之行也。若离本性,别说三身,即名有身无智;若悟三身无有自性,即名四智菩提。”马祖曰:“即心即佛。”

三世诸佛,历代祖师,都说此心;我们修行,也修此心;众生造业,也由此心。此心不明,所以要修要造,造佛造众生,一切唯心造,四圣六凡十法界,不出一心。

四圣是佛、菩萨、缘觉、声闻,六凡是天、人、阿修罗、畜生、饿鬼、地狱。这十法界中,佛以下九界都叫众生,四圣不受轮回,六凡流转生死,无论是佛是众生,皆心所造。若人识得心,大地无寸土,哪里来个十法界呢!

十法界皆从一念生:一乘任运,万德庄严,是诸佛法界;圆修六度,总摄万行,是菩萨法界;见局因缘,证偏空理,是缘觉法界;功成四谛,归小涅槃,是声闻法界;广修戒善,作有漏因,是天道法界;爱染不息,杂诸善缘,是人道法界;纯执胜心,常怀嗔斗,是修罗法界;爱见为根,悭贪为业,是畜生法界;欲贪不息,痴想横生,是饿鬼法界;五逆十恶,谤法破戒,是地狱法界。

既然十法界不离一心,则一切修法都是修心。参禅、念佛、诵经、礼拜,早晚殿堂,一切细行都是修心。

此心放不下,打无明,好吃懒做等等,就向下堕;除习气,诸恶莫作,众善奉行,就向上升。

自性本来是佛,不要妄求,只把贪嗔痴习气除掉,自见本性清净、随缘自在,犹如麦子一样,把它磨成粉之后就千变万化,可以做酱、做面、做包、做饺、做麻花、做油条,种种式式由你造作。若知是麦,就不被包、饺、油条等现象所转,饽饽、馒头,二名一实,不要到北方认不得馒头,到南方认不得饽饽。

说来说去,还是把习气扫清,就能降伏其心。行住坐卧,动静闲忙,不生心动念,就是降伏其心。认得心是麦面,一切处无非面麦,就离道不远了。

Ven Hsu Yun (虛雲老和尚) 17.

Training in compassion is a mental activity, but our mind should also be brought to the level where every action we take is influenced by compassion. That means engaging ourselves in compassion in action.

— Gelek Rimpoche

Gelek Rinpoche 10.

The Meaning of Refuge
by Khenpo Karthar Rinpoche

This will be a discussion of the refuge ceremony, with which some of the older students will already be quite familiar. Still, for those who have not taken the refuge vow or have not had any involvement in the Buddhist path, there is bound to be some question as to what “refuge” is, or what “going for refuge” means — what is the benefit of such a vow and what does it involve? Since people have different levels of understanding, Rinpoche will give a very general explanation. Hopefully, this will bring greater understanding to those already acquainted with the Buddhist path, and a basic understanding to those who are new to it.

Given our situation as Tibetans, the question of refuge and of refugees could seem rather ironic. People may wonder, “What are these people talking about? They are actually the refugees! This does not really apply to us; after all, this is a very rich and powerful nation and we already have everything we could possibly want. Why do we need to take refuge?” But we are not merely speaking about the literal sense of refuge, in terms of a general or worldly protection. Instead, we are concerned with certain existential realities that confront us, and which will continue to confront us.

We all try our best to hide those issues and pretend that we are not aware of them, but no matter what we do in the mundane world, however popular we may be and whatever credentials we may have, certain problems and confusions will continue to confront us. Nor will these confusions be remedied by our ordinary intelligence, our ordinary ability to know and make interpretations of the world. It is possible for us to live our lives quite busily, to constantly experience a flurry of activity, but in the end, we must face the fact that it did not bring any lasting meaning or purpose. At that point, all we are left with is a tremendous sense of regret and loss. As death nears, we may begin to feel alone and helpless, but desiring protection and guidance at that time will not help. It is important that we make preparations while there is time and while conditions are favourable.

With this in mind, taking refuge is the beginning of the sane spiritual path. This path offers not only the possibility but the reality of cutting through and transforming our limitations, negative patterns, and confusion. So when we “take refuge, ” we make a genuine link with the path leading towards the experience of sanity. And sanity, in this context, means liberation from the actual and potential confusion and sufferings that beings experience.

As human beings, we generally feel some need for protection and seek stability in some form of refuge. Unfortunately, there is much ignorance, confusion, and lack of understanding as to what forms would actually serve us best. There may be a particular mountain that seems very stable, a particular lake that seems comforting, or a particular tree that seems to be different or unique, and because these things seem indestructible and beautiful, they may seem to possess that security we seek. We may therefore believe these to be suitable objects of refuge. Of course, they cannot provide any real protection, and we will only become dissatisfied and resort to old habits of paranoia and confusion.

There are others who turn to the evil beings or spirits that inhabit the world around them, assuming that they possess power. By seeking the protection of these forces and relating to them, these people hope these spirits will become friendly and assist them. They view power as a source of protective and beneficial shelter; yet, with evil forces, there is no certainty, except that there will be evil consequences. It is like putting your hand in the fire — what results do you expect? Attachment also plays a role in our misguided search, because it is easy to view our attachments as sources of security. For instance, by calling forth a dead relative or ancestor, we may hope that the relationship we had with them will cause them to protect and aid us. This is obviously of very little value.

The point is that everyone senses the need for a form of refuge, either because of attachments or because of some need of power and a feeling of helplessness. As human beings, we are so dependent on our surroundings that we feel the need of some form of protection and security, and yet we do not exactly know how to procure this for ourselves. Therefore, we indulge in these different solutions, but to no avail.

It is unfortunate that people seek protection and refuge in these ways. Not only are these objects of refuge inappropriate, they are potentially harmful as well. In order to propitiate these forces, one may mistakenly believe that it is necessary and desirable to make many blood sacrifices and offer the flesh and blood of other beings. Sadly, these confused and harmful notions are widely held in many parts of the world.

People fail to realise that the negative experiences they go through, no matter how confusing or painful, result from their own habitual, negative patterns. In addition, if one chooses to indulge in further harm to others and to oneself, one will intensify existing harmful patterns and tendencies, and increase the serious consequences. This is simply common sense. Therefore, discerning the proper path, the proper objects of refuge, and the proper examples of sanity is clearly very important.

A few wise, intelligent people may have some insight into the experience of sanity and wakefulness, and into the reversal of the patterns of confusion. Looking up to these men or women, we may seek refuge in their teachings. Still, beings relate to things in different ways and on different levels. The teachings and the profound examples they use may be similar to Buddhist teachings, but their attitudes and motivations will greatly differ. Some people are so completely concerned with their own experience that they relate to profound examples of sanity and wakefulness for the sole purpose of their own personal liberation. Without a greater vision or a more spacious motivation, the benefit is also limited. Although such a person may experience some degree of self-liberation, they will lack the depth and ability to adapt or extend the situation of liberation and inspiration to others. Thus, in a very real way these gains are selfish and tainted. The inspiration these examples could have provided, the abilities that could have been developed, are much more profound and all-encompassing than what has been achieved in such a case.

As we have seen, in our search for security there are many possible mistakes we could make and sidetracks on which we could be stuck. In addition, even if we are able to relate to the proper examples and the proper path, there are many limitations which may occur. For this reason, we will now discuss the Buddhist understanding of refuge. This will be done from the perspective of the Mahayana tradition, the tradition of the “greater vehicle.”

The first point of discussion will be on the misfortune of not having had the opportunity or desire to take refuge. In such cases, one has been deprived of the inspiration of proper and perfect examples. In the mundane world, beings are constantly being born, only to die over and over, in fortunate and unfortunate circumstances. All beings are subject to rebirth because of the habitual patterns they have built up. Sometimes we experience less confusion and are able to involve ourselves in limited wholesome activities and attitudes, which then produce beneficial situations for ourselves. And sometimes we experience extreme confusion and paranoia. By indulging further and further, we strengthen our existing habitual patterns. As a result of this, we go through great psychological and physical pain and frustration.

We are continuously captured and bound by the chain of samsaric existence, experiencing the fluctuations of favourable and unfavourable conditions. It is mainly a question of intensity of the ever-present paranoia. And this is precisely because we have not been able to relate to the proper examples or integrate the skilful means of a proper path towards sanity and awakening. Even when we have done something wholesome and have generated some benefit for ourselves, the resulting favourable circumstances do not last and are of no permanent benefit to us.

This is best illustrated by pouring something into a pot without a bottom. However fresh and good the ingredients you pour in, no matter how much you pour in, there will only be the momentary satisfaction of the pouring because such a vessel will not retain its contents. Nothing beneficial will come of the good you have achieved, because — like the pot — you lack a foundation. This could also be compared to the sowing of seeds. In order to have a fruitful crop, first, there must be rich, fertile soil, and then whatever is sown will not be wasted. In our own situation, not being able to relate to the proper objects of refuge is like pouring ingredients into a bottomless pot or sowing seeds in infertile ground. Wandering in confusion, our habitual patterns become heavier and heavier. Consequently, the paranoia and suffering become more intense. That is the misfortune of not having taken refuge or of not having related to proper examples of sanity and awakening.

The second point of discussion will be the benefit of committing oneself to the proper path, and of following the examples of the awakened objects of refuge. To begin with, the Buddhas and bodhisattvas, the embodiments of awakened compassion, were ordinary beings exactly like ourselves. They were not higher or better than us, nor did they possess superior qualities that we lack. But by taking advantage of the opportunity to relate to the proper examples, and by sincerely committing themselves to the path that offers tremendous inspiration and encouragement, they became, in time, liberated beings. As a result of their accomplishment, they were able to benefit immeasurable beings with skilful means.

In the same way, we have the opportunity to free ourselves from the chain of cyclic existence by relating to the proper path and the proper examples, just as the Buddhas and bodhisattvas once did. The methods they used are as fresh and as relevant as they were in the past. Once we relate to these proper sources of refuge, then whatever spiritual practices we perform will be meaningful. We become like fertile ground because there is the possibility and certainty of producing flourishing deeds. Like a pot with a complete bottom, we have the capability of reaching our full potential, because whatever is poured in is retained, even if it is only a drop at a time.

There may be differences in our individual capacities for understanding. But, by laying the proper foundations, we are bound to experience the fruit of the practices we undertake. Once there is a solid foundation, all benefits are retained. In addition, by committing oneself to the Buddhist path one has the opportunity to fully utilise many skilful spiritual means and methods — first by understanding them and then by properly applying them. There are also different levels of the teachings, transmissions, and empowerments that one could receive, but unless one has been able to relate to the awakened objects of refuge, one does not have the ground for such relationships. The same is true if one desires to practice the bodhisattva ideals: the practice of loving-kindness and compassion, the development of the enlightened mind, and the vow to work for the liberation of beings. It cannot be done without the appropriate foundations. One may have good intentions, but not all good intentions are realistic or practical.

As one makes progress in the Mahayana, or bodhisattva path, there exists the possibility of being able to utilise the more advanced practices of Buddhism, the tantric or Vajrayana practices. But even if one sincerely desires to learn about the application of such practices, again, one must first have the proper grounding to be able to fully appreciate and integrate them. Otherwise, it would be like trying to grasp space, which would be quite useless.

In short, these are the benefits of taking refuge, of relating to the awakened examples of sanity, and of seeking awakening for oneself and others. Hopefully, we have conveyed some of the importance of seeking involvement with the Dharma.

Since we have discussed some of the possible sidetracks and misconceptions prevalent in the search for security, now we will briefly examine the awakened objects of refuge that are appropriate for our commitment. The awakened objects of the refuge are the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. The Buddha is the Awakened One; the Dharma, the teachings of the Awakened One; and the Sangha, the assemblage of spiritual friends or teachers who have preserved the unbroken line of the Dharma. These objects are also known as the Three Jewels.

The Buddha signifies complete liberation, complete awakening. As was explained earlier, the historical Buddha was an ordinary being like any one of us. He was only able to attain enlightenment by relating to the correct examples of awakening and strenuously practising the Dharma. It was not something that just spontaneously happened. Therefore, he is a sign for all of us that it can be done. This is why we relate to the Buddhas as the ultimate objects of refuge and inspiration. Going for refuge to the Buddha means relating to the state of complete awakening and being inspired by our own potential to realise such a state of liberation.

If we relate to the Buddhas as the ultimate objects of refuge, then we relate to the Dharma as the path towards the experience of such liberation. Just as the awakened ones made use of the path and attained enlightenment, we can also make use of the Dharma as the path towards the experience of liberation. Their continuing influence over the centuries demonstrates the profound validity and effectiveness of the path of the Dharma.

Lastly, we relate to the Sangha, the assemblage of compassionate teachers, as the guides on the path towards the experience of complete awakening. Because of our incessant absorption in habitual patterns, we were unable to be contemporaries of the Buddha and to learn directly from him. Or, even if we were around at that time, we were unable to take advantage of his example and his teachings. This is why the great teachers of Buddhism have preserved and maintained the unbroken lineage of the Dharma through literature, practice, and the transmission. Since the Buddha is not physically present, and we cannot understand the teachings or receive transmissions of them by ourselves, we are compassionately given the Dharma by the great teachers. Thus, we relate to them as spiritual friends on the path towards liberation.

In a more mundane sense, one could make an analogy between physical illness and the ignorant condition of samsaric existence, and between good health and the experience of Buddha mind. When we are sick, we long for the experience of good health because we see the possibility of it and are inspired to get better. Therefore the Buddhas, or the awakened ones, can be regarded as examples of complete health, and the Dharma as medicine. We realise we have some kind of sickness and we need treatment, but we are not sure what is wrong with us or how to go about treating it. Therefore, we have need of a physician who can prescribe the right medicines and stages of treatment to follow, and this is how we relate to the Sangha, or spiritual friends. Once we have been cured of our illness and are experiencing good health, we no longer need treatment or a physician. In this way, we can say that the Buddha is the ultimate object of refuge, and the Dharma and Sangha are the temporary objects of the refuge.

In terms of time, there is some difference in motivation between the Hinayana and the Mahayana, although both relate to the same objects of refuge. With Hinayana motivation, one goes for refuge to the awakened objects for this lifetime only; whereas, in the Mahayana tradition, we remain committed to the objects of refuge from that point until absolute enlightenment has been achieved. The problem with the Hinayana interpretation is that it is like taking a very strong bow and arrow, aiming it right in front of your nose, and shooting it. It will not go very far, no matter how strong and straight it is. If one does not achieve liberation in this lifetime, what use is this commitment? With the Mahayana understanding, however, the point is that when we die, the stream of mind continues into whatever birth or stages of evolution that follow. And since the transmission is given to our mind, no matter how many lifetimes it takes to experience perfect liberation, we retain the benefit of the commitment. From rebirth to rebirth, we can thus build on prior accomplishments and go further and further on the path.

The enduring commitment of the Mahayana tradition is like a flower seed. When you plant the seed, it does not immediately sprout but remains hidden beneath the ground for several days until finally, a flower emerges. It takes time, but the seed is not lost; it turns into a beautiful flower. Our situation is very similar because reaching Buddhahood takes time, but it is not wasted time. So taking the bodhisattva outlook in relation to time, we vow to relate to these awakened objects of refuge, these inspirational examples, until we reach enlightenment.

Looking at the motivations for refuge in terms of space, there are also basic differences between the Hinayana and Mahayana outlooks. According to the Hinayana tradition, we relate to the awakened objects of refuge strictly for our own liberation, so it is a very limited space. In the Mahayana tradition on the other hand, the motivation is much more vast, because we relate to these profound examples for the benefit and liberation of all sentient beings, without exception. This demands a very spacious, all-encompassing attitude. In order to be a completely responsible being, capable of true egolessness, it is absolutely necessary for us to be responsible for others as well. Throughout time, we have been caught up in confusion and paranoia because of continual self-gratification and ego-clinging, which still left us extremely dissatisfied. Therefore, we exchange our selfish attitude for the spacious, enlightened attitude of the Mahayana tradition and make our commitment to the refuge with this motivation.

If one chooses to receive the refuge transmission, it must come from an unbroken lineage. This means that from the Buddha down to this day, the literal meaning of the teachings and the practice has to have been immaculately preserved. One should only receive the transmission from such a teacher or lineage, not merely from somebody who knows how to use words well. There is currently a great deal of spiritual materialism in our world, and many dubious teachings have been made by people who know nothing about spiritual endeavours. Unfortunately, those who become involved with these teachings have no idea what they are getting themselves into.

There is an inherent thirst for spiritual wisdom. Unfortunately, people will often follow anyone making claims to spiritual knowledge. There are teachers who will make all sorts of outrageous assertions. For example, they may just rub your forehead against their own, generating some warmth, and then say, “Yes sir, I have laid it on you and given you the transmission, because you felt it.” And there are others who will say, “Okay, you sit there, and I’ll sit here, and you meditate, and I’ll meditate, and everything will be given.” Because of this spiritual consumerism, there is much misuse of the teachings.

This is why it is important that the transmission come from an unbroken lineage, and from a teacher who has been authorised by such a lineage. In Buddhism, there are several different lineages and lineage holders. The lineage holder embodies the accumulated spiritual energy and awakening of the lineage. Authorisation is needed because, no matter how realised a teacher may be, there are important logistics and appropriate forms involved. Without these, actual transmission is not complete.

When one receives refuge, there is a transmission being given directly to the mind. If one merely picks up an idea and claims to have been given a mental transmission, then no benefit would result from it. For instance, if we turn on a light switch, the lamp lights because there is an unbroken wire running from it to the switchboard. An unbroken lineage is like this. But if the wire is broken, the lamp will not light, even if we turn on the light switch. Such is the case when the lineage is broken. These are important considerations one must take into account when contemplating making a lasting commitment.

So, this has been a very brief explanation of the refuge in terms of receiving the transmission. Additional questions, such as how one should relate to these examples in daily life, will be addressed when one formally participates in the refuge ceremony. Hopefully, this teaching has given you some idea as to what taking refuge actually means, in terms of attitude and lineage and so forth. In any case, whatever your present or future participation, may this be of some help to you.

Khenpo Karthar Rinpoche 37.

For him who has completed the journey, for him who is sorrowless, for him who from everything is wholly free, for him who has destroyed all Ties, the fever (of passion) exists not.

— The Buddha

Buddha 772.

公平与不争
惠空法师

中国传统思想讲到,做人处事要“谦让”。“谦”,就是把自己的姿态放低;“让”,就是不往前去争取。当然佛法的思想比这个更深刻,但这里我们先从传统的说法谈起。我常常提醒同学,与人相处,不要去争,但如果退一步求事情公平可不可以呢?当然什么事情一定有道理可说,有公平可期,但是真实中,事情不是你这样做,它就一定会呈现这样的结果,它还牵涉到佛法理论中因果业报的问题。虽然现在做的是公平的事,也许所得到的却会是一个不公平的待遇,当我们在诉诸公平的时候,因为彼此的处理角度有很大差别,这时因果业报问题就出现了。

这种问题相当复杂,何况有的时候,公平很难有一个很明确的标准。例如老人年金,如果每个老人都发给三仟块,很公平吗?表面上是公平,实际上不公平,因为有的老人他有钱,一天就要花几仟块,甚至一、两万块,你还要发给他?有的老人三仟块真的是他一个月的生活费,没有这些钱他的日子无法过下去,这样是否公平呢?所以,很多事情是牵涉到众生业报的复杂问题,但也不是要我们以后不要去论究有无公平。最主要是要大家开展眼界,对于问题的看法要更深入、透彻,使我们在思考问题时不会狭隘,因为佛法是最讲公平的。佛法所说的公平就是平等心,平等心是彻底的公平。佛法没有我、人、众生、寿者相,没有能布施的人、所布施的对象与布施的事情,没有公平不公平的问题,佛法的思想就是这个层次!从不同的角度来谈,平等就是世俗所说的公平、公正。佛法讲平等,但并不否定世俗的公平性。论公平,自在人心,但若就事情而言、就每个人所遭受的结果而言,并不尽然会公平。譬如,家中有五、六个兄弟姐妹,要爸爸妈妈让每个小孩都读到大学、硕士,公平不公平?实在难以求数量化之公平!因为有的孩子读到国中、高中阶段,他就不读了,难道孩子可以要求爸爸妈妈把没有念的教育费折算给他?可以这样算吗?给了就公平吗?大家都读亦有家庭经济状况先后差别。所以,我们在思考问题的时候,要学习从更超远的立场、更全面的角度来思考。

再者,当我们在内心里建立起这样的知见以后,碰到问题时内心就会不争,就不会从别人的行为上来思考事情,而会从自己的因果业报上来思考。因为如果老是从别人的举动或做事来看问题,那就会去评断“这个人做得对、那个人做得不对;这个人对我好、那个人对我不好!”。如此一来,你就会因为人家对你的好坏而起心动念,一天到晚烦不胜烦,你的烦恼永远无法止息。如果我们从业报上来看,则内心时时都会觉得宁静,对于人家所加诸于自己身上的好坏不会去在意它,也绝对不会去问别人到底做得对不对,而是问自己:“我有没有这个福报呢?”如此思考就会变得单纯:就是因为没有福报,所以人家才会欺负我;就是因为没有福报,本来要给我的东西,结果阴错阳差别人给拿去了,所以才会吃不到、拿不到!这样就不会怪分配的人没有注意,或故意跟你作对了。

就像我们吃饭的时候,我一再提醒大家,先把盘子里分给你的剩菜吃掉,再去夹别的菜,先把桌上分给你的水果吃完,再去拿供众的水果。不要自己桌上还有水果,就把大众的水果拿一堆放在自己面前,怕等一下去拿就没有了。事实上,如果没有了,那就是自己的福报不够。我们从这样的小事情中,慢慢养成良好“不争”的习惯。如果大家都想要赶快把好吃的先拿到自己的面前,自然就有一种争的心态。假如大家持有一种“有就吃,没有就算了”的心情,那么在其他事情上就会有一种不争、随缘的心情。又比如,有的人胃不好,很多东西不能吃,想多吃一点,就是吃不下,想要比别人多吃一碗饭都争不过,这就是福报不够、条件不够。这时候,我们就要想:“我就是没有福报,所以要赶快好好修福报。”如此,内心就不会起很多烦恼,并且会更积极促进人与人之间和谐的相处。这就是佛法的一种思惟。另外有一个思惟的方法,拿最明显的金钱来说,世界首富比尔盖兹有几百亿美金,一天利息就有好几百万美金,你要如何去和人家争财富、争名位呢?再想到:我们生生世世都曾经当过国王、升到天上去,也下过地狱、在饿鬼道待过,如此反覆思惟就会把争名争利的心给化解掉。对于名利的追求,每个凡夫都会有,包括我自己在内,那么我如何去面对它呢?我就是常常去思惟,争取这些一点点小小的东西太不值得了,因为世间的福报、可追求的东西虽然多,却多不过永恒无穷无尽的福德智慧!我们如果老是看着那一丁点,目光可说比豆子还小。我们能够时常仔细体会反省这其中的道理,必然就会把与同侪间的计较心放舍掉。如果老是把心思放在与同侪之间的计较,那实在是一件很愚蠢的事情。

我也和大家一样,有过和师兄弟、同事、同学计较的心,因为大家都是凡夫。所以提出这个问题主要是希望藉由这种思惟方法,来导正我们的知见,慢慢化解内心里那一份烦恼的贪欲、嗔恨、愚痴,这些都是心中的毒啊!透过正确的思惟方式,即使这些毒素会再凝聚再凝聚,可是我们马上可以再化解,反覆的从凝聚中去化解……,慢慢心情自然就会打开。有时候和同学们讲话,同学会内心情绪丢给我,就好像洒了我一身毒水;每天如果一个人丢一点毒水,我就淹死了。所以,希望大家要常常用正思惟来洗涤自己的心情,随着洗涤力道一点一点地加强,自己的心就会逐渐净化,内心的毒气自然就会淡化,不要一出口都是用毒气把人给喷死了。

佛法的可贵就在于它把世间最究竟彻底的道理告诉我们,当我们按照这个道理思惟、行为时,自然可以省掉很多烦恼。因此,世间人讲公平,事实上并不究竟、圆满,而佛法讲平等、因果业报,这才是究竟、圆满的。希望各位要一再以佛法去思惟,不要以为我这是老生常谈啊!如果你一直用自己的烦恼在思考,那么你将永远会是一个小孩子、一个小人,一天到晚苦苦恼恼的。你如果接受并真正能在内心里体会这个道理,将会生生世世受用,省掉很多烦恼,可以使你脱胎换骨成为一个真正有着超越思想的人,会使你变成一个非常清净、庄严,行为举止、动作思惟非常中肯的大丈夫,因为在你的心性里面已经成为道德、思惟模式清净的道人了。

Ven Hui Kong 惠空法师 18.

The whole of the Dharma depends on the mind, and the mind is dependent on the precious human body. This is an interdependent relationship of support and what is supported: the mind is the root of Dharma, and the freedoms and advantages are the support or accessory for this. For this reason one need train only in taming the mind, as Nagarjuna advises:

The vital point is tame your mind, for mind’s
The root of Dharma, so the Buddha said.

And the Great Omniscient One says:

The Dharma depends on the mind,
And that depends on the freedoms and advantages, interdependently.
Now that the many causes and conditions have come together,
Tame your mind — that’s the main point of Dharma.

The sufferings of fear and poverty that occur throughout this life and will occur in subsequent lives are the negative consequences of using your precious human body to indulge in pointless distractions, while all the happiness and good qualities of higher rebirth and ultimate excellence come solely from not wasting the freedoms and advantages.
As we read in the Sutra of the Arborescent Array:

Child of noble family, it has never occurred to those who wander in cyclic existence that their body ornamented with the freedoms and advantages is so difficult to find; because of their evil friends, they continue to circle in cyclic existence and are tormented by the fire of suffering. But I, by reflecting on this supreme freedom, have been completely liberated from existence. You too should do likewise.

— His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche

Dudjom Rinpoche 20.

The Importance Of Spiritual Practice
by Khöndung Gyana Vajra Sakya Rinpoche

Vajrakilaya is the main practice of Sakya monasteries – it is the main annual puja held at our Sakya Monastery in Tibet as well as at our Sakya Centre in Rajpur, Northern India, where I grew up.

Today we are receiving the Vajrakilaya initiation, which carries with it an enormous amount of blessings. I would like to pass these blessings on to you. I don’t consider myself a teacher, or a master by any matter of means, but I did receive this precious initiation from very great masters, and it is through them that I have received the blessings of the Vajrakilaya initiation, and now I’m very happy that I can pass on these very same blessings to you.

One of the reasons why Vajrakilaya is such an important practice in our tradition is that it is one of the very few ancient lineages that have survived the centuries right down to today. In the past, there were many lineages, but most of them disappeared, only very few survived. And so Vajrakilaya belongs to an unbroken lineage that goes back hundreds and hundreds of years. This means that hundreds of years of dedication, hundreds of years of practice, have gone into this Vajrakilaya blessing. And so I’m truly happy that I can pass it on to you.

At the same time, it’s very important to realise that although we place so much emphasis on the practice of Vajrakilaya, all the other deities are equally as important. Whether it be Vajrakilaya, Mahakala, Hevajra, Vajrayogini, Tara, Padmasambhava or Avalokiteshvara, they’re all the same. There is no difference between them in terms of importance. All these deities are the Buddha. And so it’s important that we don’t become attached to one deity above the others.

Many practitioners are attached to a particular deity and say “Oh, my deity is Wrathful Mahakala, or Hevajra, or Vajrakilaya”. This is not right, it’s almost like taking sides. There are no sides to be taken in the practice of deities. They are all equal, they are all the Buddha.

We should understand this and rectify our attitude. We often have misconceptions about different aspects of the spiritual path. As humans we make mistakes, and it’s important that we realise our mistakes. This is the first step that leads us in the right direction. The first step towards enlightenment is to realise our mistakes. Once we know right from wrong, we can progress steadily along the path.

When we receive an initiation or a teaching, it is very important to put it into practice, to practise diligently. Whenever they give initiations or teachings, many lamas give their students commitments that they have to abide by if they want to continue receiving the blessings. For my part, I’m just happy to pass on this teaching to you. The only commitment that I would ask from students is that they practise, whatever their practice is. It doesn’t have to be Vajrakilaya.

But whatever practice we do, we need to do it diligently. We need to strive to bring the practice of the Buddha’s teachings into our daily lives, into our relationships, with our family, our friends, our neighbours. If it turns out that we haven’t changed for the better, that our relationships haven’t improved, then it means that we haven’t fully assimilated the meaning of the Buddha’s teachings. It is very important to use the full effect of the Buddha’s teachings, to listen to them, and to make them our own.

In the same way that we should not consider one deity superior to the others, the same applies to our lamas. Practitioners sometimes say for example “Oh, my master is the best, he’s the highest. He’s a tulku, or a khenpo”. This seems to me a wrong way to see things, a wrong kind of reasoning. If we have a guru, then he is our guru, and there is no such consideration as to whether he’s high or not. He’s our guru, and our relationship with him has nothing to do with his title or his position.

If we’re learning martial arts, then we can say that our guru has more muscle or more efficient techniques. But when it comes to practising Buddhism, there’s no such thing as higher or lower. It won’t be because a teacher has a higher throne that he will be giving us better teaching.

What really matters is how it affects our lives when we receive teaching from our guru, how much we open ourselves up to him. If the guru’s teaching is not reaching us deeply, it means that the guru/disciple relationship is not working. If we don’t understand how he is trying to help us, then it means that we need to rethink the relationship. It doesn’t mean that the guru is not a good guru, but it might be a question of karmic connection.

There has to be a karmic connection between a guru and a disciple. Even to be a Buddhist, we need a karmic connection. To meet our guru, we need a karmic connection. Even in normal life, sometimes when we meet new people or go to new places, we feel naturally happy, without any reason. Sometimes when we meet someone for the first time, we also feel very happy, very close. Even if we’ve never met them before, we feel as if we’d known them for years and years. This is called karmic connection.

This is what happens when we meet our guru. We feel deep emotions, we feel strong reactions in our body, we feel very close as if we’d known him or her forever. These are the signs. It’s not absolutely necessary that this happens, but these are the signs that we’ve met our karmic guru.

And when we have met our karmic guru, it becomes especially important that we commit ourselves to our spiritual practice. I always request disciples, sangha members, vajra brothers and sisters, to practise diligently. This is because our guru is here for us. The gurus are not here because they want to be here. They are the Buddha himself, and the only reason why they are here is to help us.

We call this age the Fortunate Eon because so many Buddhas are taking birth in our world. And we need the Buddhas to stay as long as possible in our world. The only way we can do this is by practising. Neither medicine, nor money, nor luxury can help to prolong our guru’s life. Only our practice can we offer to the guru, the most valuable offering of all.

And so, we need to practise diligently. This is not to say that we have to go into retreat, we don’t have to cast everything away and become a sort of Citizen Kane or anything of the sort. What this means is that even if we do five minutes of practice every day, or even two minutes, or even one, we have to make it count. We have to do it with a pure heart, with pure devotion. Then our gurus will live long.

Without our gurus we are nothing, we’re just like a baby. When we’re born, without the help of our parents, of those who love us, we would die within a few hours, because we don’t know how to eat, how to drink, how to do anything. We’re just like a crawling piece of meat! In a way, we are still like that. Without the help of our gurus, we are completely helpless.

The Buddhas are everywhere, inside us, outside us, everywhere. But because of our karma, we cannot see them. Thankfully, they show themselves to us in the form of our gurus. We mustn’t think that when we are not physically in front of our guru, he cannot see us. With this kind of thinking, we do whatever we want, and then when we go to the guru, we wear nice clothes and tell him how well we’re doing. It doesn’t work this way. We cannot trick our guru. And if we act in this manner, we are disrespecting the guru and it means we don’t trust him.

Actually, when we take a guru, it means that he knows everything about us, our inside, our outside, our past life, this life, our future life. He knows everything. This is what we have to understand and believe. If we’re not one hundred per cent transparent with our guru, then the relationship is not as effective as it should be. You may get a certain amount of blessing, but not a full amount of blessing.

And so, if we want our guru to live long, then we need to practice. This is my only request, this is the only commitment that I’m giving to you.

Khöndung Gyana Vajra Rinpoche 3.

One’s heart-mind is like a sun: It has natural cognisance and the quality of brilliance. It reveals the tremendous open space that is the wisdom of one’s own mind and is the clarity of this open view. Inside of that is warmth, which is compassion.

— Dza Kilung Rinpoche

Dza Kilung Rinpoche 9.

生命蛻變的機器
慧門禅師

掃淨內心污染.發動蛻變機器

大家學佛,都是想變得比較好。但是,各位是否想過,連「想變得比較好」,都是一種欲望和貪求。學佛若把「想變得比較好」的心常掛心中,就有障礙。所以,修學佛法先不必考慮是變得比較好或比較壞,只要學習照著方法做下去,其效果一定會變得比較好的。

很多人,平常都不說業障現前,開始學佛問題就來了,一下子說身體不舒服,連吃飯都咬到舌頭,就這樣把懶於修行的責任全推給了業障。

學佛修持禅法,並不是要改變我們的心;我們的心在沒受到污染之前,本來就具足和佛陀一樣的佛性。我們來修持佛法,也不是要改變我們的生命,我們的生命本來就很高貴、清淨,充滿著歡喜和慈悲,與佛陀及諸佛菩薩同樣無二。只不過在生命流轉中造了太多的惡因,這些惡因變成種子,進入八識田中,這種種子跟著我們走,只要這一期生命未了,果報未現之前,這些種子還是跟著我們下去,隨著神識繼續遷流不已。所以,過去生生世世所造作的業,都會綜合起來顯現果報。

要使心不再受到污染,不再造作惡因,就要透過「禅」的修持,漸漸地,一層一層地,把受到污染及被覆蓋的神識滌除干淨。這樣,我們的佛心佛性就自然顯現,生命自然充滿歡喜慈悲,自然不會有煩惱和痛苦了。

「禅」梵語譯為「禅那」,傳到中國省略為「禅」。在印度任何宗教都修禅那,例如:耆那教、婆羅門教都在修,他們修定,但是每個宗教所強調要達到的定,目標不同,有的為修神通想要飛天鑽地、有的為身體健康、有的為了脫生死、有的想透過修行來開大智慧,使自己的心不會執著外在的事物,使心不受束縛。

「禅」的原意包含「靜靜思慮」的意思。思慮什麼?思慮正法、正念,而不是胡思亂想、雜念妄想。胡思亂想的「想」,等於雜念妄想,人因為有雜念妄想,才會產生種種不必要的困擾、煩惱和痛苦。所以,想改變自己的生命,就要透過禅的修持才能達到。

例如,古代沒有自來水,人要去河裡挑水,可是挑回來的水很濁,不能喝,一定要靜置讓它沉澱;天氣好溪水沒受到污染時,挑回來的水放一個晚上,水澄清就能喝能用。若是遇到刮風下雨,溪水混濁時,挑回來的水就得讓它沉澱好幾天後才能應用。古人為了讓水加速澄淨,就在水裡放明礬,加速水中的雜質凝結、沉澱。

我們的身體,就像水桶;我們的心,就像桶裡被污染的水。心為什麼會被污染?就是生生世世、今生今世,有貪心、有嫉妒心,而做出很多執著的行為,這樣「心」(桶裡的水)自然受到污染。受到污染,我們的心就不清淨;心不清淨,看外在的事物,自然就看不出它的真相,所看到的都是假相和幻相;就像玻璃杯裝著水,把水弄濁,透過濁水去看玻璃杯對面的東西,看得清楚嗎?一定看不清楚的。假使搖動罐子,再去看,看到的東西會不會變形?肯定是會的,是不是?

所以,人之所以會煩惱痛苦,都是因為看不清實相,都只看到事物外表幻化的假相,無法看到真正的、主要的核心;只執著表相,而沒確實看清楚實際狀況。例如:兩個人一見鐘情就結婚,剛開始,眼晴、心,都是透過髒水和搖動的水去看對方,所看到的對方,都是迷迷糊糊、不清不楚,都不是真正的對方;只憑著看到的假相和自己的幻想,就認定對方是自己心目中的白雪公主或白馬王子。兩個透過濁水看對方的人,看不清時,自己就產生幻想,以為對方具備了自己所要的條件,所以一拍即合,一見鐘情;等結婚之後,對方露出狐狸尾巴,看到真相,這時就造成感情不和諧,產生煩惱和痛苦,甚至以為對方欺騙自己;其實對方那有欺騙?只因為戀愛時,對方明明說得不對,你也會坦護地說「對、對、對」。

若用這種方式去看世間事,對所接觸的事物,就無法辨認出何者為真、何者為假。這時,就會帶來無限的煩惱和痛苦、失望和挫折,而一直生活在煩惱痛苦、無奈中。

那麼,要如何將污染的心洗淨?如何除掉心中的污染?假定把污染除掉,又能持續保有定力,使心如如不動;再透過如如不動的心去看世間的一切,就能看到真相,而不被假相欺騙,這時就不會執著,不會把一個假的東西,硬要把它當成真,真的卻強要當假的;人的煩惱和痛苦就這產生的。

禅的作用,就像在濁水中加明礬,加速污染物凝結,使它沉澱。一個人學習禅法,透過禅的修持,可以慢慢一層層地將內心的污染掃淨、除掉;有了定力以後,身體所裝的心(水)就不容易晃動,不會髒;這樣,透過清淨不晃動的心去看世間,自然就看得清清楚楚,就不會執著,就沒煩惱和痛苦,自然能恢復清淨、快樂的本性。若沒禅的修持,就無法見到本自具足的本性,只好生生世世再輪回了。

我們要修行,就要多學習幾種方法,把每種方法都演練純熟,自然會發現其中和我們契機、契理,並且讓我們歡喜信受的方法;用這個方法繼續修持下去,內心所有的疑惑就會一掃而空,而得到真正的清淨和喜悅。

事實上,讓生命升華,使生命產生蛻變—從壞變好,從好變得更好,每個人都有這種能力,只因我們的心受到污染,又久未充電,使生命的原動力發不起來。

舉例來說,寒暑假時,很多人來打禅七,我都告訴他們:「你們來打禅七,每天都去步道行禅,或去河邊坐,坐在石頭上看花、看樹、看石頭、看瀑布、看流水。你們看到的花草樹木,全部是攝取人類不要的、丟棄的東西當養分,它們的根從土裡吸取水分,它們的葉從空氣中吸取人類吐出來不要的二氧化碳,但經過它們蛻變的機器的作用(生命的原動力),卻可以把壞的東西轉化成好的,還會吐出氧氣給我們,若沒它們這樣來調節大自然中空氣成份的比例,我們就無法存活,甚至有很多花草樹木,還能開漂亮的花,結好吃的果,把自己奉獻給人類。

花草樹木在這麼差的環境中,都能吸取廢棄的東西,把不好的蛻變成好的,奉獻給宇宙。反觀現在的學生,在家裡,向父母拿很多零用錢,看同學穿漂亮的衣服、鞋子,他也要買,而且還要買名牌的。他們要求的是:要父母愛他、老師稱贊他、人家尊重他、對他客氣;若不順他們就出口三字經,出拳揍人,還拿刀子捅人,甚至飚車時拿起刀來,連不認識的人也砍過去!

他們的環境,和花草樹木的環境,是不是天壤之別?為什麼被我們列為沒意識的植物,有蛻變能力,而人類,成人要穿好的、吃好的、住好的,青少年也是什麼都要最好的,但變出來的生命品質好不好?有沒有成正比例?沒有。

我們要的環境,都是要最好的,要讓身體、生理舒適,要讓心理也很舒暢。目前社會經濟,在物質方面都很豐裕,身外之物的需求很容易滿足,也很容易就達到自己的欲望;但是要達到心靈滿足就難了。你能保證每天早上起床,先生都站在床頭跟你說「早」,說「你今天很漂亮」嗎?絕對不可能。你能保證每天坐上了公車,人家都說:「你長得很莊嚴,你請坐!」嗎?一定不可能。所以,想在心靈上得到他人的尊重而膨脹自我,一定會產生煩惱和痛苦。

我們每一樣東西都要好的,但經過內心轉化出來的,卻都變成不好的悲傷、挫折、失望、煩惱、痛苦。說起來,這都是自己的欲望太多;欲望太多,自我膨脹;當自我膨脹時,就掩蓋了生命蛻變的功能。事實上,我們如果要求好的東西,那麼生命內在最深處的蛻變機器,就應該產生作用,讓它蛻變出更好的東西來;就像上市場買菜,假定買的都是好的菜(新鮮的材料),煮出來的,就應該是色香味俱全的佳肴。但是,為什麼有人用同樣的材料,卻煮不出好菜來?這就是技巧、方法對不對的問題了。

為什麼人所要求的都是最好的,經過他身心轉化後,生命的品質卻變成負面的?因為其中沒有佛法,沒有透過禅的修持,所以內心深處能讓生命蛻變為更高尚、更有意義、更優美的機器失去了作用,喪失了蛻變能力,所以,呈現出來的生命品質都是負面的;就像上等的材料,交給不會煮菜的人,煮出來的通通像豬菜。

尋找相應的法門.消除自我意識

你們在家裡和先生、孩子、鄰居相處,遇到爭執,是不是直覺的就先找對方的錯誤?「就是因為你怎樣,我才會怎樣。」先把爭執原因推到別人身上,認為自己沒有責任。是不是這樣?

在生氣時,你們有沒有先檢討自己為什麼生氣?為什麼聽這句話就生氣?為什麼看到這個人就生氣?還固執己見地認為:「就因為他這樣做,我才會生氣,我是為他好,才生氣。」是不是這樣?你們是用什麼方法來處理日常生活中的這一類接觸?

假定沒有方法,生命根本無法得到蛻變;現在有了方法,就可以找到我們最大的敵人──自己。我們的敵人,就是自己的貪心、嫉妒心、怨恨心、執著心、自我心、自私心、和自己的欲望,這些敵人,都是自己制造的。我們的煩惱和痛苦從那裡來?也是自己制造的,沒人能將煩惱痛苦加諸我們身上。所以,要了解如何解決問題,只有透過禅的修持,否則就無法解決。

要蛻變自己的生命,一定要透過禅的修持,找到一種相契、相應的法門,一門深入,助益才大。在學習中,找尋一個較合適自己的法門依法修行,不然,法不契機,就是盲修瞎練。就像買鞋子,要試穿看看合不合腳,再決定要不要買?而不是隨便找一雙就算數。再如先生送你一雙尺寸不合的皮鞋,說是進口的,花了三、四萬塊,買了送給你。你穿了,能走嗎?或是你先生到鞋店,看到一個女人在試穿一雙很小的鞋子,他覺得很好看,就買了一雙送你;回家一試,你的腳比較大,穿不下,先生就罵你:「花了那麼多錢買鞋給你,別人穿起來那麼漂亮,為什麼你穿不下?」這樣不是很好笑嗎?

所以,法一定要契機、契理、合適自己,要能對治自己不好的習性,這樣對自己才有幫助。舉個例子,假定你不抽煙,我卻一直教你如何戒煙,你喜不喜歡?聽了就討厭!但是對抽煙者而言,教他戒煙,才真正幫助他,改變他的生命,這樣才能在最短的時間內,得到最好的效果。

透過禅的修持,來拋掉生生世世、及今生今世養成的不良習性,使生命產生蛻變,我們的生命自然活得愈來愈喜悅,愈有意義。拋掉這些負面習氣,我們的生命就能流露出真正的慈悲。

生命要產生蛻變,可以說,只有透過禅的修持,才能徹底得到最安定、最永恆的改變;若用世間的方法,無論是法律或倫理道德來規范、來遏止我們產生惡行,這種外來的規范,對生命的改變都是非常有限的;也就是說,在情緒上,能用這些規范來控制,或許能暫時停止惡行,但是,一遇到另一種情境,或遇到外在的種種引誘,而引誘的力量又強過倫理道德及法律規范時,這些倫理道德及法律就會被拋到腦後,先做了再說。

所以要使生命產生蛻變,就必須尋找相應的法門,一門深入的修持下去,而且不只是今生今世,來生來世也要勇猛精進地一直修持下去。

透過禅的修持,才能使生命愈變愈好。但是,為什麼我們的生命不能愈變愈好?那是因為我們都沒禅修,只站在自私自利的立場,讓自我意識過分強烈;自我意識強烈,便無法蛻變自己。假定我們能調節自己、犧牲自己,自然就會蛻變得愈來愈好。

沒有禅的修持,人就不會調節自己。幾乎每個人都這樣:順境時,從不會想到什麼是煩惱、痛苦;在談戀愛時,樣樣都覺得很好,都自我蒙蔽,以為談戀愛很羅曼蒂克,不會想到失戀時的挫折和痛苦;婚後以為先生今天會比昨天更愛她、明天會比今天更英俊、後天會比明天賺更多錢,這都是自己在做白日夢、在自我膨脹。然後,一天天下來,一看,事情都沒按自己的夢想和希望達成,這時,就開始感到挫折、失望、煩惱和痛苦。

人因為不懂在需要時自我調節,反而一再自我膨脹,危機來臨時,才會造成不可收拾的局面。很多做事業的人也一樣,當事業順利時,自己覺得很有自信,認為什麼事情都好解決,沒什麼困難,不管時機就拼命擴展。這樣不懂調節,就像樹木到了冬天還要葉子長得更茂盛,結果,冬天還沒過完就死了。

在台灣,有位商場聞人,自恃父親財產多又是立委,就把銀行當自家金庫,要多少就拿多少,因此盲目自我膨脹,過份投資,正巧碰上經濟萎縮,無法按照預期利潤回收,負擔不起冒貸和超貸的本利,結果造成金融大風暴,最後這位聞人手鐐腳铐在監獄中「郁卒」吐血而死。

這種景氣不好還要自我膨脹,就像樹木到了冬天還不斷長新葉一樣,把營養耗光,自然就趨向滅亡。這都是沒經過禅的修持,不懂自我調節,自我膨脹的結果。

透過禅的修持,知道把自我膨脹的枝葉剪掉,懂得調節自己的心念、言行、做法;這樣,生命才能蛻變,才能把壞質變為優質的;這些,都不必去求,只要懂得調節自己,削減自我意識,我們的生命就能蛻變得愈來愈好。

你們種過盆景嗎?種過的就知道,有些都不加以修剪;有些,一年修剪二、三次;結果有修剪的,就長得好;沒修剪的,就長不好。同樣的道理,一個不知割捨,以為要一路發才好的人,結果一定會輸給懂得一膨脹就捨掉的人。所以,透過禅的修持,不會去執著那些應捨掉的自我膨脹;才會樂於捨掉自我。自我慢慢減少、減少,反而保住生命最根本的原動力。

怎麼捨?就從禅的修持裡,把一顆自私自利的心變成助人、利他、奉獻的心,使大家都能更好。這才是真正削減自我膨脹的方法,否則生命就像不修剪的盆栽一樣,愈來愈雕萎。

一個沒遇過逆境的人,他的生命就無法真正成長出來,所成長的,都是虛假的外表,而不是真實的內在。人的生命要產生蛻變,首先要修忍辱;修忍辱就要忍耐。忍和耐不同,像打坐時腳會痛,要忍一分鐘,可以;忍三分鐘,可以;再忍五分鐘,就難熬了。假定要繼續熬,就不是靠忍,而是靠耐力。忍力和耐力完全不同,禅的修持,不是要訓練我們生命短暫的改變,而是要訓練長期的蛻變;只要耐力逐漸加強,心力也就會逐漸加強。人的心力加強了,不管在日常生活中遇到什麼困難、挫折、束縛、麻煩,即使所有的逆境都現前,他也能像樹木一樣,全然接受所有的壞環境及干擾,並調整自我意識,適當地度過難關。也就是說,這些逆境經過他的內心,透過耐力、心力,蛻變成好的。懂得消融自我意識的人,不會因為環境改變,就生氣、抱怨、憤怒,也不會馬上找理由原諒自己,更不會把錯推給別人。

接受一切果報.停止惡因造作

當我們碰到生氣、憤怒時,該怎麼辦?我們要跟佛陀學習,不論好壞,一切都全然接受—學習像一面鏡子,清清楚楚地把果報反映出來,不要做出下一步的連鎖反應而造作新因,招惹更多更多未來的苦果。

佛陀是怎麼做到的?為什麼他能做到而我們做不到?就是因為我們在生氣和憤怒時,不了解是什麼原因而生氣。追根究底,為什麼會生氣?就因為我們的內心有大大小小不同的欲望,當欲望無法達到時,就會找出很多理由來推卸責任,把達不到欲望的責任推給別人,「都是你,如果不是你阻礙,我老早就完成了,就達到需求、滿足欲望了。」所以,我們會生氣,都是因為有人阻礙我們欲望的達成,使自我的成長與膨脹受到阻擋,於是就開始生氣。

譬如,先生和太太的愛,這種愛不是真愛,只不過是想把對方占為己有,作為發洩感情的工具,把對方當成一個東西而已;這時,你只有一個強烈的欲望──占有,而不是真正流露出慈悲的心去愛對方。如果真正流露慈悲心來愛對方,就不會因為對方的任何改變而影響你對他的愛。假定彼此只用占有欲望來滿足自己的情愛,或滿足自己受家庭保護的欲望,以為已經撿到鐵飯碗,不知不覺就露出狐狸尾巴,「反正現在身分證、戶口名簿都登記了,對方也沒辦法了。」所以,缺點統統暴露,讓生生世世積累的不好習氣天天爆發。

這就是沒禅的修持才不了解:人的欲望太多,就是生氣和招致煩惱痛苦的重要因素。假定認清了人生氣、憤怒是怎麼生起,就容易掌握生氣、憤怒能量的來龍去脈。

很多家長對孩子很嚴格,都說:「我是要你好,才叫你這樣!」但是父母往往都站在自己的立場去想象:「我認為你應該怎樣,你就要怎樣。」從未站在孩子的立場去了解,孩子應該過什麼樣的生活才會真正快樂?很少有家長能做到這點,都是以自己的標准或自己過去走的路,來要求孩子要如何如何,這樣一來,反而給孩子帶來很大的壓力。

將心比心,如果孩子跟你一樣,按照你安排的軌道繼續走,他會變成怎樣?從出生到現在,喜悅時間比煩惱時間多的?請合掌!只有一位;從出生到現在,不靠外在因素就有喜悅的?請合掌!一個也沒有。這就表示,我們的生命,從出生以來都處在煩惱、生氣、憤怒、痛苦的狀況比較多。如果連你自己都煩惱痛苦不堪,一點喜悅、快樂都沒有,還要小孩步上你的後塵,那不是硬要把他推落和你一樣的生命模式嗎?想想,我們哪有資格把自己的小孩往火坑裡推?自己走過的路都無法得到生命的喜悅,硬要小孩照著我們的路走,他仍然和我們一樣不會有喜悅的。若深入探討這個問題,就不會因為孩子不聽使喚而生氣了。

有一次,有兩位同所學校任教的老師來找我,他們是夫妻檔。先生學佛比較久,太太剛接觸佛法。先生說:「快!有問題就問。」太太想想就問:「我有兩個小孩,一個很聽話,每次要他做什麼,他就做什麼。另一個就不聽話,不管我講什麼,一定要唱反調。所以我經常生氣,不知道該怎麼辦?」

問題就在這裡。她認為孩子是她生的,應該百依百順聽她安排,叫他們往東,就絕對不能往西。沒想到有一個竟不聽她擺布;叫他往東,他一定向西,故意搗蛋,是個叛逆的孩子,讓她頭痛不已。其實,一個人的個性和生命,一定有順從的一面,也有反叛的一面。當母親受到叛逆孩子對峙時,她就生氣,為什麼生氣?因為這孩子傷到她作母親的權威和尊嚴。可以想見,只要我們有強烈的占有欲望,只要我們欲維護自我的自尊,就很容易生氣、憤怒。

從無始以來就養成經常生氣、憤怒的習性,到底要用什麼方法,才能讓它消之於無形?怎樣才能不讓生氣、憤怒的能量白白耗掉,並且把它變成正面情緒的能量,使生命升華?譬如,如何把生氣的能量轉移成祥和的能量?如何把憤怒的能量轉化慈悲與和諧的能量?這就牽涉到這個人有沒有禅的修持?有沒有禅的修持,在處理事物的方法上有很大不同,生命的品質也會產生很大的不同。

佛陀遇到逆境時,因為有禅定功夫、有觀照能力,他不但不會讓生氣從他內心深處生起,更不會讓生氣的能量付諸言語表達及反擊行動上。所以,我們要處理自己生氣、憤怒時的能量,就必須跟本師釋迦牟尼佛學習。

佛陀時代,提婆達多經常想陷害佛陀,打擊佛陀,以取代佛陀的地位。有一次,提婆達多見佛陀從街尾走來,就在街頭故意把一只大象弄得大發脾氣,讓大象狂奔出去,想利用大象踩死佛陀,但是大象狂奔過去,跑到佛陀面前,把腳提起正要踩下去的時候,突然把腳停住懸在半空中,沒有踏下去。

這時,佛陀的弟子很生氣地跟佛陀說:「提婆達多三番兩次陷害您,我們應該還以顏色,以後他才不敢這樣!」你看,這些弟子很多都很有修行,最起碼都證阿羅漢果以上,比我們有修行好幾萬倍,連他們這樣有修行的人,都還會生氣。

但是,佛陀卻阻止他們說:「不可以這樣做!去報復他,就是在造作新的惡因,將來還會招來新的惡果!」接著佛陀說:「要想停止因果循環報應,不管碰到順境或逆境,甚至被冤枉了,沒辦法用語言文字解釋的時候,我們還是要擁有一顆喜悅的心,來接受當下呈現的不好果報。這次不好的果報,是因為提婆達多在過去生與我有過節,今生又對我的修行與說法沒有深刻了解所造成的誤會,所以他才一直想陷害我,想置我於死地。事實上,也是我自己造了沒把話說清楚的因,才會呈現這樣的果報。若要讓造作的因所呈現出來的果報消失作用,不再和神識連在一起,生生世世跟隨著,這就像一面鏡子把惡因照出來,清楚知道現在是在接受果報。接受果報時,如實反映,照出自己造什麼因而接受什麼果報,不做連鎖反應。假定有報復的心,不但先前的果報沒有消除,反而又造作了新因,將來就要再承受更不好的果報。」

佛陀對逆境,對極不公平、對無理的待遇都欣然接受,只是像鏡子一樣,如實反映而不作出任何連鎖反應,這是因為他有觀照能力。若沒觀照能力,就會繼續造作惡因。

今天,有人對我們無理苛求、辱罵,我們會不會生氣?一定會!

為什麼?因為沒有觀照能力,沒觀照到因果循環的規律,所以,要處理生氣和憤怒,必須向佛陀學習觀照因果和因緣。

接著弟子又問佛陀:「為什麼大象抬起腳,卻不踏你,而懸在半空中?」佛陀說:「因為大象過去生與我有因緣;因為我曾經救過它,它知恩圖報,懂得要感恩、回報,所以在它最憤怒、發狂的時候,都還知道感恩,而停止發瘋狀態,以報答過去世的救命之恩。」所以,人要處理生氣、憤怒,也要向這只大象學習,當生氣憤怒的時候,只要生起感恩回報的心,原本想生氣的事也就不會生氣了。

有位來「如來禅蓬」參加禅修的師姐,在禅修過程中,我教他們要忏悔、感恩,讓他們打坐到很寧靜的時候,再慢慢地引導他們去想自己應該忏悔那些事,以及忏悔後要不要感恩圖報?當時這位師姐一直流淚,看起來很傷心,我也沒問她。不久,她又來參加禅修,在心得分享時,她說上次來參加禅修,在忏悔過後,竟然發現她應該對婆婆感恩。

原來,她婆婆已經八十幾歲,晨昏顛倒—認不出白天和晚上;每次她要幫婆婆做事,婆婆都推開她,造成婆媳感情不好,但她和先生的感情還算融洽。在那次忏悔時,她就想,為什麼婆婆對她不好?慢慢一想,才驚覺是她先對婆婆不好,於是開始忏悔、掉眼淚,甚至生起了感恩心,認為如果沒有她婆婆,怎可能有她先生?怎可能給她和諧的家庭?所以她頓起感恩。在忏悔感恩之後,回到家已經是晚上八點多,想不到她婆婆竟然奇跡出現,很清楚地知道是晚上,還叫她的名字,問她有沒有吃晚餐?讓她嚇了一跳。

人的心念,在一念之間產生轉化之後,生命跟著改變,整個家庭關系也調整過來。所以,處理生氣和憤怒時,先要檢討自己,把自己的心往內照,眼睛往內看,把我們最喜歡看別人缺點、挑剔別人錯誤的心和眼睛,轉回來看自己的錯誤和缺點;之後,把我們最喜歡看自己優點的眼睛反過來向外看,去看別人的優點和種種好處。這樣,生氣和憤怒的情緒就能處理得妥當。如果沒這樣做,就永遠不能建立良好的人際關系,就沒辦法在群體生活中與人和諧相處。

修持觀照能力.轉化憤怒能量

生命的蛻變,絕不是用控制可以達成的;用控制,只是一種壓抑。壓抑是受到輿論、社會風氣、習俗,受到教育程度、社會地位、名譽的約制,而安撫自己的心,這些都不是根本的、究竟的。如果遇到更嚴重的狀況而失控時,怎麼辦?只有透過禅的修持,才能讓我們具有觀照能力,有了觀照能力,才能穿透所有虛幻的表相,進入內心深處。到內心深處,才能看到每一個念頭的生起、流動和消失。也唯有透過禅的修持,才能有這種觀照能力,有了觀照能力,內心所生起的任何不好的能量,都可以了若指掌,像貪心、瞋恨心、抱怨心、焦躁心、暴戾心、悲傷心、憂慮心、愚癡心,甚至相對的祥和心、愛心、和諧心、慈悲心、快樂心、喜悅心等等,都可以看清它的來龍去脈。透過禅的修持,能具有觀照能力,生命才能產生很大的蛻變,有了這樣蛻變,生命就會升華,就會活得更有意義。

要讓生命產生蛻變,就要進一步去觀照,會影響生命升華的毒素到底是怎麼生起?生起以後,會對生命產生什麼影響?由這些毒素產生的情緒,它們的能量又跑到那裡去?透過禅的修持,掌握好內心這些細微的感情波動和情緒變化,我們就不會被毒素迷惑而侵害到真正的生命核心,生命就能產生很大的蛻變,在生生世世的修行中逐步升華,終有一天會跳出六道輪回。不然生命無法產生蛻變,輪回的輪子永遠不能停下來。不能停下來,我們只好生生世世繼續遭受輪回的痛苦,這樣我們生活的沒有一點意義,總是生活在恐懼、怖畏、害怕、不安的精神狀態中。

試想長期處在毒素侵害下,我們的生命還有什麼意義?現在,請大家把眼睛閉起來,想想看,從出生到現在,自有記憶以來,你生氣、憤怒的次數和時間比較多?還是喜悅的時間比較多?

再進一步想想看,如果你的快樂比痛苦多,但是,這些快樂都是從內心生起,或是需靠外在因素,你才會快樂?例如,來自父母、兄弟姊妹的愛護、同學朋友對你的肯定,或用金錢買物質讓生活過得舒適,你才會快樂?還是不需要靠任何外物,什麼事都不做,你就會快樂?有沒有人需要靠外在的幫助、人家的贊美,才會快樂?有沒有人都不需要這些,就會有喜悅流露?不需要好吃的東西、不需要電視、不需要穿漂亮的衣服、不需要先生或太太灌迷湯、不需要朋友同事對你肯定,就會快樂?沒有任何原因,都能保持快樂?──都沒有!

為什麼不能沒有任何原因就能保持快樂?追根究底,還是因為我們生生世世都在貪瞋癡、愛慢疑、邪見這些毒素的侵害和引誘下。欲望就在這當中逐漸生起,並繼續制造毒素來毒害自己。這些毒素都不是外來的,而是從內心深處自己制造出來的。我們的情緒為什麼不穩?為什麼總是隨時要與別人對抗,或看某人不順眼。這都是因為我們有種種大小不同的欲望。不論我們的欲望是那一種,是要有錢、要有更好的房子住、要有更高級的車子開。事實上,這些欲望的種類並不重要,重要的是產生這些欲望的根本原因──貪。

當欲望生起而達不到的時候,就會給自己帶來失望和痛苦。只要有人事物阻礙欲望的達成,我們就開始生氣、憤怒,把自己不能滿足欲望的原因都推給別人,推給阻礙我們的人,就這樣一直繼續累積著,生生世世養成不好的習性,日復一日地加深、累積更多不好的能量,隨時會被引爆。

所以我們必須透過禅的修持,產生觀照能力,分分秒秒往內心觀照,觀照欲望的能量,這時欲望就會立刻消融於觀照之中,這樣生命就會因此而得到蛻變。

修持禅法就是要消除自我意識,不讓自我意識膨脹。透過禅的修持,能把這點做好,那我們的生命就會過得更有意義、更喜悅。所以,叛逆並非不好,教育孩子要去發掘叛逆背後的潛力,再針對這種潛在力,去幫助、協助,讓它發揮出來。這樣,這孩子的生命才能真正完全的獨立。

想占有的欲望,就是讓我們煩惱、生氣、憤怒的最大因素。我曾讀過一本書,作者寫他演講之後有人問他:「生氣、憤怒時,怎麼辦?」他以自己的例子說明:「假如我的孩子做錯了,我會跟他說明原因之後再打他,打他,才能發洩我生氣、憤怒的情緒,這樣才不會壓抑。」你看!作為一個父親,用這種方法來處理自己的生氣、憤怒,他不壓抑生氣和憤怒,雖然他想教他的孩子改好,但是潛意識裡,卻是以打小孩來發洩自己的生氣和憤怒。這種內心自我矛盾所做出來的方法是不好的,雖然他內心多少還充滿了愛,雖然痛在孩子身上,也痛在他心中。

我們再看有些老師,當學生傷到他的尊嚴時,他會憤怒的一巴掌打過去。他這種打法和父母打自己孩子的心境顯然不同。父母打自己孩子的時候,至少還摻雜了親情,而這種老師打學生則是氣昏了頭,覺得自己尊嚴受到傷害,失去理智,在盲目之下打過去。所以,有時候老師打學生,為什麼一打就發生問題?學生不是因為老師打他,他才反擊;也不是因為打重了,才反揍老師一拳;而是他內心不滿那種處罰沒有慈悲、沒有愛的成份!他可以從老師的臉上、從沖動的舉止上,深深感受到老師的憤怒情緒,所以他不願被打,直覺的即刻還手;很多體罰糾紛都是這樣發生的。

所以,我們對生氣和憤怒的處理要非常技巧,也唯有透過禅的修持,來觀照自己的能量,才有辦法做到。有些老師上課,碰到芝麻小事,就氣一天、二天、甚至一個禮拜,都不消!為什麼不能消?因為沒觀照能力。例如學生吵,遇到老師心情很好的,對「吵」的感覺就不會在意;但是心情不好時,就會對學生大發脾氣。

同樣的,為什麼很多孩子會反抗父母,親子關系惡劣?因為父母感情失和吵架了,就把整個情緒改變方向,轉移到無辜的孩子身上,把孩子當發洩對象,當出氣筒;孩子在家裡就很難過,內心就很不平。因為不平,脾氣也跟著不好,就容易被激怒、容易生氣 。事實上,生氣憤怒的能量和祥和慈悲的能量是一體兩面的,就像銅板,一個正面,一個反面;也跟手掌一樣,當憤怒時,是握著拳頭揍出去,產生暴力,能量透過心傳遞到拳頭;但是這能量也可以不用在拳頭上,而用在手心,伸出去,握個手,道個歉,這樣,就把產生暴力的能量引導到友誼、祥和這邊來了。

所以,透過禅的修持,能適當引導各種正負能量。引導得好,情緒就會平穩,如長江、黃河雖然經常泛濫,但只要疏洪道做得好就不會泛濫。同樣的,生氣的能量所產生的情緒,透過禅的修持引導,讓它走動,就不會危害自己和他人。所以,對生氣的處理,一定要透過禅的修持,逐漸有觀照能力以後,才有能力引導它,否則生氣的能量缺乏適當引導,只有隨它任意爆發,這種無明、無奈的爆發方式,所造成的後果也不堪設想。

在沒觀照能力之前,碰到外境阻礙自我成長,阻礙欲望達成,傷害自尊、自我而生氣時,怎麼辦?有什麼方法既不影響、干擾、傷害別人,也不影響、干擾、傷害自己,讓自己有適當的管道發洩能量?

一、觀照呼吸

遇事開始要生氣、憤怒時,如學過數息觀或安那般那呼吸(觀息),馬上可以看到自己呼吸的方式和速度在改變。所以,當發現自己的呼吸變得急促、不規律時,就要知道有不好的能量要沖出來,有氣要發了。這時,如果環境許可,最好坐下、把腿盤起來、把手放松、打手結,不要握拳頭。把呼吸放慢,閉眼。能做到這些,憤怒的氣就由緩慢的呼吸引導到正常管道運轉,生氣就會減低,能量也不會沖出來,就不會做出不可收拾的事了。

很多同學來參加禅修,我都告訴他們:「生氣時,第一步:把手掌放開,不要握拳,握拳會讓自己更生氣。先放掌,把手放開,把眼睛閉起來;接著,腦筋不要去想那件事,馬上觀自己的呼吸;環境許可時,盤腳。這樣,就能引導生氣的能量,不讓它爆發,也不壓抑它,讓它適當地流動。」

很多在社會上工作、在公司開會、或與同行競爭時,為了自己的利益或觀點與他人不同,就會爭吵;對方講的話或方法,聽了不滿意就開始生氣:「講這麼久,又沒道理,還不快說完!」結果,一生氣,講話的口氣都帶刀、帶氣,這樣,對方一定不會接受,認為你是在意氣用事、對人不對事。碰到這種情形,怎麼辦?一樣!先調息,做丹田呼吸,做到呼吸平穩後,再開始表達自己的看法;這樣,對方容易接受,認為你的確是對事不對人,講話的口氣也不因人而反對,沖突、爭執才會減少,我們的氣才會消散。

二、 藉像觀照

若遇學生在學校打架,你怎麼處理?

怎麼處理都沒用。記過,有什麼用?都已經打過了,怎麼辦?

最好是建議學校,在體育館裡裝沙包、沙袋,牆壁還要裝鏡。學生一打架、一生氣,就叫他們一邊一個,對著鏡子揍沙包;同時,要他們看鏡裡的那個人,把鏡裡打沙包的人當成不是他自己,鏡子裡那個人才是真正的他。這樣,他的能量就會跑到鏡子裡去,變成鏡子裡的人是他自己;他的能量就從身上拋出去而被鏡子裡的人像吸收。用這種方法,就可以訓練他的觀照能力,觀照到他自己的言行,愈看愈覺得丑陋,愈覺得自己的行為實在太粗魯、太暴力,實在不應該這樣做。這樣,他們的氣和能量一消耗掉,就沒有多余的能量來打架了。

三、快速行香

也可以把吵架、打架的學生叫到輔導室去盤腿、打坐,去數息、觀息;等他們氣順了再說,這樣才有用。否則,對他講什麼,他都聽不進去,也接受不了。有些老師甚至一看到學生吵架、打架,就叫他們去跑操場,這只能消耗他們的能量,並不能把他們內心的怒氣拋出去。那麼,到底用什麼辦法好?用快速行香。

生氣的時侯,順時鐘繞著直徑六公尺的圓圈快速行香,這樣,生氣的能量就會隨著行香而產生離心作用,把生氣的能量拋掉,拋到最後,就不會生氣了。不信的話,下次生氣時,馬上快速行香,十五分鐘以後再停下來,靜一靜,這時,自己會對原來的生氣覺得好笑,事實上也是不值得生氣。會生氣,是因為自己情緒不好,誰倒霉誰碰到了,就把從前積壓的氣一次全沖出去,找他作代罪羔羊而已。所以,用快速行香來拋掉不好的能量,是一種很好的方法。

四、發洩能量

再如:先生在外喝酒,太晚回來,你生氣了,這時怎麼辦?最好停止辯論。接著,離開發生沖突、惹你生氣的地方,找個安全的場所發洩生氣的能量;譬如回房間,拿枕頭,把結婚照貼在枕頭上,握著拳頭,就往先生的臉上捶。但是捶的時侯,要記得面對鏡子,看看自己在做丑陋的行為時好不好看?邊打邊看,看到最後,就會發現自己內心的丑陋。這時,生氣的能量會被鏡子裡的你吸收,你就看著鏡子,當成生氣的是鏡子裡的你,不是鏡子外的你,你只是一個觀眾,那表演生氣的演員是在鏡子裡。這樣,你生氣的能量,既不會干擾自己、傷害自己,又能得到適當的發洩,更不會把生氣的能量壓抑回內心深處。

當能量壓抑到內心深處後,會愈壓愈厲害。本來,一次一次地將氣發出去就沒了,但是你卻不讓它發洩,反而把火藥倒進內心深處,原來是一次倒一點、一次一包小小包,最後卻變成一包大大包,就等於把壓抑的能量累積了;原來的爆炸范圍是一公尺,現在變成全家;你再壓抑,爆炸范圍就會波及鄰居,最後波及同事,更厲害的壓抑,會把它從黃色炸藥的威力變成原子彈、核子彈的威力,一旦爆發,會使更多無辜的人遭殃。你看那精神錯亂的人,拿著槍在公共場合,砰砰砰亂掃一通,傷及無辜,造成悲劇。一個人最危險的事,就是壓抑自己生氣、憤怒的能量,沒讓它適當發洩。

發洩的方法還有很多,舉個例,當你生氣、憤怒時,可以找一些比較動感、節奏感強,但又溫和的音樂來聽。讓你的身體隨著韻律而動,這樣,很容易就把生氣的能量隨著音樂拋掉。但是像這樣靠著外在幫助,並不是究竟的。所以,很多人來參加禅修,我都教他們比較根本的方法,像獅吼禅,帶他們去森林、瀑布裡大喊大叫,把他們的壓抑都喊出來;甚至也教他們去拋念頭,都很有效。不過,這些方法在家裡都不能做,一做,鄰居會以為你瘋了,打電話叫救護車把你送走。

五、藉聲觀照

怎樣讓自己清清楚楚地看清自己生氣的言行和樣子,怎樣幫助自己學習觀照?除了看鏡子,還有一個方法:生氣時,把錄音機打開,放在鏡子後面,對著鏡子,把生氣的原因、理由統統發洩,說出來,包括要用什麼方法解決、報復等,都講出來。講完後,盤腿打坐半個小時;坐完,再打開錄音機,聽聽剛才憤怒時所表現的言語和口氣。聽過後,保證下一次生氣時,你會很有分寸,不相信,回去試試看。

六、觀照能量

上述幾種處理生氣、憤怒的方法,是為了協助還沒經過禅修,及沒觀照能力的人,暫時可用的技巧,事實上,我們要看清自己的內心世界,就必須學習往內看,才能進一步觀照到自己的情緒變化。

透過禅的修持,具有觀照能力後,在生氣、憤怒之前,就會發現有一股能量在醞釀,當觀照到這股能量生起後很快又消失,就可警覺到這能量是要產生不好的現象,會發生暴力。假定觀照到這能量生起後繼續成長,而且愈來愈強烈,那麼,這能量將要產生的表象一定是好的,是慈悲、喜悅、和諧的。

譬如,碰到同事或親友家裡發生變故,很悲慘,我們有一種替他難過、也有一股慈悲的力量,想要盡力幫助他,所以,慈悲喜悅的心生起,當我們觀照它,它會一直很細且持續的流動、成長下去。假定有觀照能力,觀照到這能量生起後消失,這能量一定是不好的。假定沒觀照能力,這能量就會往上沖,沖昏了頭,引伸暴力事件。很多人一生氣,氣到打完架,才知道自己生氣。很多夫妻吵架,吵到沖昏頭,找不到東西摔,直到十幾萬的古董摔破了,才知道可惜。到兩個人的能量都發洩完了,才坐下來說:「都是你,不然我不會摔這古董。白白損失了十幾萬!」這時候知道已經太慢了。

這是因為沒有一點觀照力。

所以,透過禅的修持,是要提前觀照到生氣的能量,在它還沒影響、干擾、傷害人之前就發覺到。如果等到能量發洩完,才知道自己生氣,這就表示沒有一點觀照力。假定能量醞釀到最高峰時還能發現,也還算不錯,但是醞釀到最高峰才觀照到,也已經是最危險的點。很多殺人犯在生氣到極點時,可以觀照到自己生氣的能量,他也知道殺人會被關,但是已經來不及了,這時,他的行動比觀照更快就砍下去。所以,透過禅的修持,是要觀照到生氣還沒達到高峰就要察覺。假定觀照能力很強,在能量還沒形成之前就觀照到,知道它要形成,這就表示透過禅的修持,定力和智慧已經見到一點功力了。

總之,要處理生氣和憤怒,就要透過禅修的技巧,適當地引導和宣洩能量,在宣洩中既不影響、干擾、傷害別人,也不影響、干擾、傷害自己。這樣的技巧、方法才是正確的。

七、一個實例

老師在監考時,抓到一位同學作弊,這同學也承認作弊,監考老師就沒送到訓導處記過,只交給導師處理。但是,這位同學在導師面前不但不承認作弊,反而說監考老師誤會他。結果,這位監考老師氣了好幾天,氣得連吃飯都會胃痛,甚至吃不下去。為什麼?因為老師這種職業,很容易在不知不覺中承受歷史的包袱,養成貢高我慢,抬高自己、看輕別人的弊病,這種弊病就是以為自己是專門教訓別人、管教別人,看別人錯誤的人。如果我們把看別人錯誤的心,轉回來看自己,再把看自己優點的心,拿去看別人。

老師在改考卷時,幾乎都是:「這題錯了,扣兩分;那題錯了,扣三分、四分;總共得幾分。」。要培養具有觀照的能力,就要改個方式改考卷:「這題對了,給二分;那題對了,給一分、三分;加起來共得幾分。」在學校,很多同學做對了很多事,老師卻看不到;而只要做錯一件事,老師馬上就看到。其實老師的工作就是協助學生術德兼修,所以當學生犯錯或迷惑時,應該以慈悲與智慧加以引導,沒必要抬高自我意識與尊嚴和學生產生對立,否則老師就是在自尋煩惱、自討苦吃。假定學生跟老師一樣行,那讓學生當老師就好了,何必要老師呢?所以,當老師的人要改變自己,就要透過禅的修持,把貢高我慢的心轉化為謙遜的心。這樣,就不會時常覺得學生干擾了自己清淨的心,這時老師的生命才能獲得蛻變;這點相當重要。

對聽話的小孩,一般父母都覺得自己受到尊重而感到高興,往往造成盲目與偏袒,明明這個小孩做錯很多事,十件有九件錯,他們都看不到,只看到做對的那一次,就加以拼命褒獎。但是,對叛逆的小孩,明明做對九件事,只錯一件,父母卻偏執,只看到他做錯的那件,而且一直掛在心上,嘴巴還不停地唠叨。這種父母不但造成家庭不和諧,也加深親子代溝,更嚴重地會教養出危害社會的問題人物。

不只父母、老師,任何人都一樣,唯有透過禅修,才能使自己的生命得到蛻變。不信的話,就請常來聽聞佛法,修持禅法,慢慢地,你的家人、鄰居、朋友,都會發現你的脾氣、性情在改變;你的生命素質也在提升,頓時你的生命就會得到蛻變,相信大家都會感覺得出來。

Ven Hui Men (慧门禅师) 22.

The most important step in spiritual growth is the decision to avoid evil and cultivate goodness within your stream of being. On the basis of this fundamental discipline, every spiritual quality becomes possible, even the eventual perfection of Buddhahood.

— Ling Rinpoche

Ling Rinpoche 1.