我心有佛
文|张家提

据禅宗僧传《五灯会元》记载,由于战乱,普陀寺的众禅者决定迁移庙址。在迁移途中,只有豫通大师一人坚持早课,从不荒废。有人劝说:“此处无佛,大师可不必如此。”豫通大师答一偈子说:“此处无佛,我心有佛。既诚我心,是诚我佛。”

早晚功课是出家人每天早晚必须修持的功课,也是出家人修行的重要方式之一。通过早晚课诵不仅可以坚定僧人的信仰,培养僧人的道念,同时还可以使僧人养成有规律的生活习惯,有益于身心健康。在和平的岁月中,僧众都能做到坚持早晚功课,但是在兵荒马乱的岁月中,能够像豫通禅师那样在极端艰苦的环境中,依然能够坚持做早课的人,却并不多见。这还不算,最为令人赞叹的是豫通大师“我心有佛”的回答偈语。在豫通大师看来,坚持早课,不仅是对诸佛的虔诚,也是一个人应当具备的道德操守。在大师眼中,信仰是需要自去坚守的,不论有没有人监督,都需要自己持之以恒地自觉奉行。只有坚定自己的信念,才能不因环境的改变而退失道心,或放松自己的修行。

佛陀的大弟子迦叶尊者是“我心有佛”的人。迦叶尊者出家之后,专行日中一食、树下坐等头陀苦行,直至老年依然如此。佛陀怜悯他的衰老,对他说:“你长久苦行,如今年岁已高,应当稍自休息。”迦叶尊者依然苦行如故。佛陀对迦叶尊者坚持苦行大为赞叹,说:“你能为一切众生作依止,与我在世时没有区别。有同你一样修头陀苦行的人,则我的佛法就存在;没有行头陀苦行的人,则我的佛法将灭亡。你真是荷担如来大法的人。”

古代高僧中,有很多“我心有佛”的高僧。他们执着于自己的操守和信仰。隋代高僧智舜法师,赵州大陆人。长期专修禅定观想,但妄心频频生起,自己无法禁制。为降伏妄心,即引锥刺股,血流不止。有时为降伏妄心,便抱着石头右绕佛塔,从不停止,大腿上被锥子所刺之处,斑驳陆离如同锦鸟。

唐代的全庵禅师修道猛烈精进,很多时候,他在坐禅观照时达到了废寝忘食的程度。有一天,全庵禅师在靠着栏杆参究“狗子无佛性”的话头时,下起了小雨,由于全庵十分专注参究话头,竟然浑然不觉,直到衣服湿透了方才知晓。

唐代高僧哲侍者在睡觉时为防止自己贪睡,经常以圆木为枕,一旦睡着之后,圆枕就会转动,哲侍者马上就会醒来继续坐禅用功。日久天长,哲侍者就习以为常了。有人见到哲侍者如此苦行,告诉他用功太过,哲侍者回答说:“我于般若缘分素薄,若不如此,恐为妄习所牵”,说过依然如此用功。

《淮南子》有云:“兰生幽谷,不为莫服而不芳;舟在江海,不为莫乘而不浮;君子行义不为莫知止休。”像以上高僧那样“ 我心有佛”,坚持自己的信仰和操守,他们并不因无人知道而停止,也不因环境的险恶放松对自己的要求。这才是一个君子人所应行之事。

在俗世中也有很多人“ 我心有佛”,他们坚持自己操守和信仰。春秋时期卫灵公一次在宫中与大臣议事,当时已经是深夜时分,街边驶来马车之声清晰可辨。当马车行至宫门,车辙之声嘎然而止,仅能听到轻微的马蹄叩击地面发出的脆响。而经过宫门之后,马车复又加速疾驰而去。卫灵公只听声音便断定此人一定是蘧伯玉,因为只有他,才能在夜深无人之时,依旧克己复礼,坚守君臣之道。

东汉时期的名士杨震, 在调任东莱太守时,一次路过昌邑。县令王密是他在荆州刺史任内荐举的官员,得知杨震到来,王密晚上带十斤黄金作为礼物拜望杨震,感谢杨震当年对自己的举荐之恩。杨震严词拒绝了这份礼物,并说:“我了解你,你却不了解我,是什么原因呢? ” 王密以为杨震故作客气, 便说道:“晚上没有人知道,有什么关系呢?”杨震十分生气,厉声说:“天知、地知、你知、我知,怎么能说没人知道呢?”王密羞愧难当,只得带着黄金悻悻而回。杨震为官清廉,从不接受私人拜谒。他的子孙经常蔬食步行。故旧长者有人劝杨震为子孙开办产业,杨震不肯,并说:“使后世称赞他们为清白官吏子孙,以此赠送子孙,不也是一份厚礼吗?”

无论是佛门和俗世,一个真正有德行修养的人,都能做到“我心有佛”,从而坚守各自的操守和信仰,成为受人尊敬和赞叹的人。

Conditions truly they are transient.
Their nature is to arise and cease,
Having arisen, then they pass away,
Their calming and cessation is true bliss.

— The Buddha (Mahaparinirvana Sutra)

Buddhism in the New Millennium
by Phua Keng Chuan

What is the future of Buddhism in the new millennium? The mass media, such as the internet and mobile communication has brought a tremendous change in the world today. It has revolutionised the communication and affect the way we do in our everyday life. It brought people together through the sharing of knowledge. Buddhism, like all other religions is feeling the impact and it has to keep pace with this change.

Nowadays, we can spread the Dharma with new tools and ways that are more sophisticated. Globalisation and modernisation have led to a number of changes in Buddhism. It has posed new opportunities and challenges for Buddhist communities and it will eventually help to globalise the Dharma. Buddhism has been adapting naturally and simply for many centuries. The adaptability of Buddhism may be one reason for its success, as it is easily integrated into many foreign cultures during the past centuries. However, there are always views and opinions with misunderstanding about Buddhism. There is also a perception that the religion is gradually invaded by other faiths and it is degenerating. It may one day vanish from Asia where Buddhism has the roots.

The aim at the forum is to create a platform on how to update ourselves so that the truths will remain steadfast. Time is everything in our life and we have the opportunity to look forward. Buddhism looks at times differently. It signifies the declining of everything. It is an illusion as the elements of time are like a tip of our memory. We discover nothing but the past. The present has no beginning and ending. Time is like the water current and both are moving nature.

How do we make use of time to our benefits? The millennium is an indicator for us to do something. It is how we practise Buddhism in our present age. To Buddhism from the ancient time to the present era, it is a wide span of time to raise such an issue like this. The core of human beings is suffering and this is a problem that will still exist even into many millenniums.

Buddhism has global appeal. From the land of its birth in India, Buddhism has spread to many countries throughout Asia. In each country and civilisation that it encountered, it was understood and adopted to the ideas and customs of a country. In recent times, there has been an interest and a movement towards Buddhism in Western countries. We can also find different brands of Buddhism around the world. It is still keeping the essence of how to end suffering. There is always a great diversity of Buddhist methods and Buddhist teachings and it fit very well with different societies and different cultures.

We must first self-realise the teaching and its truths, before we can pass on the teaching beyond the time factor – challenging everyone to come and see. Buddhism is not a philosophy, as we need to practise systematically. We can get the results by ourselves without asking Buddha for help. Therefore, Buddhism is still relevant regardless of time. There are different schools of Buddhism with different practices and it is still growing. When we visit big temples, we cannot see any monks but many Buddha images, and we may mistaken that Buddhism is degrading.

There is a different approach to practice Buddhism. The Western ideal of a religion is that there must be a God. However, Buddha says that let the God be in his space, while we Buddhists have to solve our own problems. Buddhism is beyond time and space. It is in our minds. The word, “Theravada” as with Theravada Buddhism was coined in Sri Lanka in 1950 to replace Hinayana. It created identities, while we live separately in our own country to preserve Buddhism. There are divisions and we need to build a platform like The World Fellowship of Buddhists (The WFB) to bring all schools of Buddhism under one umbrella. There is another word, “Dhammaduta” that appeared in the 5th century BCE and it was alien to most Western scholars. It means to spread Buddhism everywhere in solidarity. Today, we have the three schools of Buddhism – Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana, which can simply mean cleaning of the mind, compassion and wisdom respectively.

Fake Buddhism also poised other challenges to the religion. They created a problem with the world by taking some aspects of Buddhism into their own teaching and labelled them as Buddhism. For Buddhism to be sustainable, we must hold it in its own firm ground. The Buddhist symbol, the Dhammacakra is the turning of the wheel of Dharma perpetually. It carries unmistakable strength. Buddhism is still relevant and active to solve people’s problems in the next millennium. We may invite people from other religions to learn the ABC of Buddhism. It is a philosophy of Awakening, Balance (Sustaining) and Compassion.

How does Buddhism face challenges beyond itself? There are great values of Buddhism for the contemporary world. The doctrine and practice that Buddhism offered such as equality, fraternity and democracy are advocated by modern society. The Dharma is also in line with the trend of human development and scientific exploration. The advance of technology has led to the discovery of more Buddhist insights. The Buddhist scripture is huge as compared to other religions. It poses a big challenge to people that are nowadays busy with their working life. The other problem is the expansive propagation and language barrier and the lack of human resources and multilingual monastics to propagate the Dharma. Buddhism is also in line with solving contemporary social problems and contradictions. The world needs Dharma to bring peace and to address environmental issues. However, there are too many challenges for the potential of Buddhism. We must start thinking of what we can do about it.

The census of Buddhists population of the world as compared to other religions shows that Buddhism is declining. According to the report by the Pew Research Centre, the global Buddhists population of the year 2050 will be the same size as it was in 2010. With the exception of Buddhists, all the major religious groups of the world are expected to increase in number by the year 2050. Buddhists are projected to decline by 7% from nearly 500 million to about 462 million in the year 2060. Should we be concerned about numbers or does it matter if Buddhism continues to exist? Alternatively, is it just enough for people to learn the Dharma and benefit from it? The challenge to Buddhism now is how Buddhism will disappear. Will it be displaced by other religions? Will it replace with pseudo Buddhism or even abandoned by Buddhists.

The problems Buddhism is facing are not new. Whenever there is the distortion of Buddhism and the Dharma, the solution for us is to increase Dharma solidarity and to establish right view. The support within the Buddhist community is very important. There is a view that traditional Buddhism program has no appeal especially to the younger generation. We may want to change the approach, but we must be careful. There is also the problem of disconnection between members especially with the lack of support between members and temples. This problem cannot be solved easily and we must start with knowing our members. We may even fear the loss of members and it is here that we need collaboration between Buddhist organisations. Do the problems affect us if Buddhism continues to exist? It does matter if in future, Buddha images are not found in temples to inspire practice of cultivating pure thoughts for society; but in buildings and to be forgotten as historical relics.

In ancient India, the people and their beliefs were more complex. They believed in rites. When the Buddha was around, he discarded all that. This simple approach attracted many people, including the kings that allowed Buddhism to grow. When we looked at Buddhism that is taught today, it is full of ceremony. Nowadays, people are more educated. We should approach the Dharma in a simple manner. Buddhism will not attract people if they could not understand certain practice such as chanting. We understand that Buddhist rites and ceremonies are very rich and we would not advocate eradicating it. Perhaps, we should repackage it at a later stage for a better, deeper understanding.

We should teach in a language that everyone could understand. There are three areas of approach. They are simplifying, emphasis on practical applications in social experience and lastly to practice meditation. We may simplify the Dharma so that they can become more effective and easily understood by the majority of the people. Simplicity is the way that can lead one to enlightenment. We can teach Buddhist stories in simple language. For beginners in Buddhism, they will be shocked to see many rites and ceremonies. Therefore, it is important to demystify Buddhism for beginners. Our experience from the five senses is important. The known is the experience. The teacher can use expedient means to teach students that may even motivate them to learn more about Buddhism. Mindfulness is important because through meditation, one can become enlightened. It is an excellent way to introduce them to the Dharma. The people will come and enjoy learning the Dharma. We can also make use of technology, songs and story base to disseminate the Dharma.

The need for a calm and compassionate mind is important. There is discontent, conflict and unhappiness as the world is brought up in confusion. It is time we need cultivation. The challenges facing Buddhism can be personal, external and ideological. These are alienation, family and relationship stresses and high work demands. Other challenges such as poverty, globalisation, discrimination, environmental mismanagement, misinformation and indoctrination by the internet are not new.

What is the root of the problem? The challenges to problems are ultimately mind-made. They are spun out from the mind that is caught in greed, hatred and delusion. The root of the problem is the misguided mind. We can address these challenges with the cultivation of morality, concentration and wisdom. The application of a discerning mind, guided by compassion and wisdom may provide the holistic approach.

When sharing the Dharma, we should highlight the relevant of the Dharma by creatively communicating the Dharma. On the personal level, this is the positive transformation to personal well-being and ultimately to enlightened being. On the global level, this is the vision of ethical and compassionate humanity or pure land on earth. Science is also a good partner with Buddhism in addressing the demands of the new millennium. We can also share the peaceful and joyful Dharma such as the seven factors of enlightenment. These are mindfulness, discernment, energy, joy, tranquillity, concentration and equanimity. We may even broaden the network of Buddhist fellowship and favourable environment for engaging with the Dharma. This can be done by extending the supportive metta-charged fellowship and spiritual communities to cater to the need of the segregated small family social environment. The network can also provide the platform to reach out and share the Dharma.

What are the development and characteristics of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism? What are the differences and similarities between them? The differences are lineage, language, teachings and form. There are practices that differ but the end goal is to cut across lineage and taking the Triple Gem as our common refuge. The other problems are the idolisation of a teacher, sectarian teaching and isolation. One of the main solutions is to take the Buddha as our teacher, the Dharma as our teachings and the Sangha as our guide. In all Buddhist traditions, the focus is on helping sentient beings. The different lineages are more like medicine and vehicle. Our goal is to end suffering. The lineages offer different approaches that are suited for individuals with different affinity and inclinations. The focus is on the Dharma and not on the method it is delivered. The Theravada and Mahayana tradition also stressed on the importance of meditation. Both are adapted to cultural differences.

The term, meditation means the cultivation of the mind. The nearest Pali or Sanskrit terms that corresponds to this is the word, citta-bhavana. In Buddhist tradition, the cultivation of the mind is usually presented in terms of two different but complementary aspects. They are namely “calm” and “insight”. The aim of calming meditation is to enter into deep “concentration” (samadhi) while the aim of “insight” meditation is to arrive at “wisdom” (prajna). We have Upatissa’s Vimuttimagga (path of freedom) which gives us 38 aspects of meditation and we have Buddhagosa’s Visuddhimagga, which gives us 40 aspects of meditation. Some of the objects of calming meditation are the ten devices, four formless, the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth jhana. Some of the obstacles to calming meditation are five hindrances, sensual desire, ill will, tiredness & sleepiness, excitement & depression, and doubt. There are also different schools of meditation in Mahayana Buddhism. They are the Sanlun, Fa Hsiang, Pure Land and Tiantai Buddhism. The Pure Land School emphasis on the practice of “nianfo” They usually mean “mindful recollection of the Buddha” It also means “the recollection or the bearing in mind of the attributes of a Buddha”. The Tiantai school of Buddhism emphasises samatha and vipassana meditation.

How are we going to practise Buddhism in this modern age? There are thousands of discourses taught by the Buddha. In ancient times, many people learned by memory using the oral tradition. Today we have every opportunity to learn. One can be a doctorate in Buddhist teachings. They give lecture but not practicing. Therefore, when a devoted Buddhist faces difficulty, he may not know how to handle the problem. Beliefs and devotion are also not important in Buddhism, as we do not consider the Buddha as a God. It does not help in salvation. Nowadays, it is difficult to learn and practise Buddhism because many things attract us. We have fast moving life-style. As life is competitive, we may have created serious problem. Therefore, we need Buddhism today. Everybody has stress and it is suffering. Anger should not overcome us. Let it come, watch it and conquer it. When practicing Buddhism, we can obtain beautiful results, and overcome stress. We need metta (love without attachment), karuna (compassion) and simplicity joy (being happy about people success).

Buddhism is also developing slowing in Western countries. However, the needs are different. Buddhist characteristics such as “come to see”, cause and effect, responsibility, “open to questions” and interdependence attracted many Westerners. Other traditional religions impose fear on people. Some Buddhist monks in America conducted meditation services and visited the homeless non-Buddhist for a nice friendly conversation. The approach is different. There are meditation program in prisons, schools and hospitals. There is also a need to train local people to work in the various places. For some Westerner, it is advisable that we do not emphasis on ritual, chanting, devotional activities, merit-making or doctrinal studies. We need to tell people that this is traditional Buddhism, but do emphasis on mindfulness. How can be we move forward? We need to have understanding and unity. It is also good to discuss non-Buddhist practises. As a Buddhist, we must learn to accept and appreciate and it is important that we must help to promote the Buddhist teachings.

There is a huge impact of globalisation on Dharma propagation. The economic globalisation leads to greed. Greed takes centre stage and it is institutional. Greed is also materialism. The Dharma of non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion is important. The characteristics of globalisation are excessive consumerism, uncontrolled wastage of resources and instability, There are transnational religious organisation or religion in the business world. It has positive impact. The results are wider Dharma propagation, greater awakening, competition and mutual learning. However, their negative impacts are competition for limited resource, the rise of personality cults and the exploration of resources such as consumerisation. The rise of mega-pseudo-Buddhist cults is also subverting the Dharma. We need to expose them by educating the public on the truth about the Dharma.

Cultural Globalisation such as language, values and lifestyle have an impact on Buddhism. The English language, the common language of the world is not another language of Buddhism. Asians such as Oriental people are quiet by nature. Our food and dressings are also different. We also tend to follow the Western lifestyle of having Christian name. We need to propagate the Dharma by preaching corporate conscience to corporate leaders to counter greed. The Buddhist institution must practise what is preached. Buddhists also need to take part in Inter-religious dialogue with other religions. It is ideal to preach Dharma to all others and not only to Buddhist alone. For Dharma propagation, it is also useful to have a mastery of important words such as dukka or karma in English. As a Buddhist, we also need to live a wholesome Buddhist lifestyle and have social engagement.

What is meant to be a Buddhist practitioner? What are the positive development and challenge we face as a lay-people? To engage wholeheartedly in Buddhism takes valuable time for meditation, study, service or volunteer work and community. Modern technology, however increasingly dominates our everyday lives in work, education and society. We have the aspirations and ambitions. The progress of modern science and the advance in educational level of many people has a huge impact on the religious beliefs of many people. There is a way to escape the suffering in modern life. Science is trying to explore mindfulness. The Buddhist use of mindfulness stress-reduction program is useful. Many modern educated Buddhists are having demanding jobs, and practices such as mindfulness meditation provide much-needed relief from the pressure in day to day life. We have the desire to lead a less stressful and meaningful life.

While we concentrate on our own liberation, we also need the spirit of having the Bodhisattva vows to follow the Buddha’s example and help everybody to become enlightened. A Bodhisattva-aspirant generated the great aspiration to attain enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings by actively giving service to people. The choice of us is either we follow the path to end our sufferings or to end the sufferings of everybody. With globalisation and fast changing world, people are becoming intolerant, more materialistic, egoistic and individualistic than ever before. Time is on our side as there is a growing need for us to act immediately. This is important for Buddhism to progress and flourish beyond the new millennium.

Lotus 208.

The essence of realisation is nowness, occurring all at once, with nothing to add or subtract. Self-liberation, innate great bliss, free from hope or fear is the fruition.

— Marpa

放下得失的觀念
慧律法师

我們要怎樣才能活得快樂,那就要放下得失的觀念。真的,要放下得失觀念。今天你得到任何東西,先不要高興,有一天就會失去;你今天失去的東西,或許,有一天又會得到。這個世間,沒有永恆存在的東西,因此必須放下得失觀念。

人生常有許多無奈。比如,男孩子失去女朋友,痛苦得要死,要上吊、吃安眠藥、舉槍自殺、喝農藥,在台灣很多喝農藥自殺的。他們就是不瞭解,有些東西得到了,不見得就是好的。像台灣的大家樂賭得很盛行,賭得很瘋狂,有一個人很少中獎,後來去簽六合彩,中了四百多萬。去領錢的時候,卻遇到四個人,拿了武士刀出來,叫他把錢放下。台灣現在的治安已亮起紅燈,很嚴重了。

有一天,內政部長許水德先生來拜訪我,他希望藉宗教的力量來改善社會風氣,用因果觀念來勸人為善。其實,新加坡的治安這麼好,如果能加上佛教的因果觀念,那就更好了,會使新加坡的社會國家更進步。有因果觀念後,人們就不敢去犯罪。比如說你叫我去綁票,打死我,我也不幹,叫我去殺人,我也不會去做,因為我有戒律的觀念。

但我們剛才說那個中六合彩的人,到銀行領錢時,遇到四個人叫他把四百萬放下。他曾是海軍陸戰隊,身體很壯,雖然對方持刀搶劫,但他不甩這一套,因為他學過跆拳道。於是就大打出手了,結果四個人被他打死了兩個,但他身上也被砍了二十多刀,後來不治死亡。

我們有個假設,假使不要中四百萬,也許就不會死。因為得到橫財,致使身中二十幾刀。所以我說:「諸位佛友,有錢沒有錢,學佛好過年。」因此,我們要放下得失的觀念,有錢不一定很好,有女人也不一定很好,擁有權力也不一定很好。也許會惹上殺身之禍,這很難講喔!平淡過日子,不是很快樂嗎?

一段因緣

接著要講一段我自己以前的事,那段日子是我這生當中最痛苦的時候。那時我讀高中三年級,交一個女朋友。雖然我這麼矮,也有一段羅曼蒂克的戀愛史。但今天我出家,並不是失戀才出家,這一點必須先說明清楚。

高三時交的這位女朋友,是我妹妹同班同學的姊姊。當時,我唸台北建國中學,那是一流的學府,分數非常高,在幾萬名考生中,才錄取幾千人,很難考上的。那時我教她數學,一教就教出了感情。

後來她媽媽不同意,她對女兒說:「妳交的這位男孩子,長得很英俊,但是很矮。還有,妳看他臉色青黃不接的樣子,可能活不到三十歲。」

好在,我今天已經三十八歲了。

那個時候,由於她媽媽反對,我們相處的時間不是很長,不久就離開了。可是,因為第一次談戀愛,純純的愛,分手的時候很痛苦。哪裡像現在是老船長,不會暈船,現在是了解、太了解了。以前又不知道佛法,不知道怎樣過日子,每天想看書,她的倩影就跑出來。只要聽到電話聲響,就想是不是她?很緊張。後來人家不要我了,我也就決定不要她了,是她先不要我,我當然也要放下。

唉呀!朋友啊,你們不知道那種感情的痛苦喔!要放下那段情,實在很難!很難!真的沒有那麼簡單。沒有被火燒過的人,不知道火的厲害,你明明知道沒有緣,要放下就是沒辦法。

後來就跑去台北大橋,想著橋下的河水這麼深,跳下去就OK了,很快就解決了,就解脫了。但再看看這麼高,那不行啊!跳下去?不行,太痛苦了,死也要找一個快樂的死法啊。於是從臺北橋走下來,在淡水河邊走著走著,走在淡水河邊還是很痛苦。再想一想,衝下去淹死就算了。那時是冬天,摸摸淡水河,啊!好冷喔!這跳下去萬一沒死,就麻煩了。死了就一了百了,沒死會感冒,還要吃那種﹁黑矸標﹂,太麻煩了。後來想一想,不行,家裏還有母親。唉!那種思念的執著,真的很痛苦。

後來,我讀到一位美國博士所寫的︽青年人的希望︾,這本書寫得太棒了。又看到︽人生的座右銘︾,那時還沒有接觸到佛教,如果那時已經接觸到佛教,那就太簡單了。她要離開那就趕快,我好方便﹁唸經﹂,妳不要吵我。但當時在我最痛苦之時,我翻到這本書,才讓我度過最痛苦的時刻,它寫著:﹁時間總會過去的!﹂意思是說,時間慢慢地會消失,痛苦也會消失的。

假設說,我得到她,跟她結婚,也許現在已經開始吵架了,那可不一定喔!所以你看到漂漂亮亮的,那都是短暫的,那些都不是真實的。有一天她就要去整容、拉皮,還要割屁股來補臉皮。台灣以前有很多歌星影星都這樣子,多麼痛苦,為了這個臉皮。所以說,我要告訴諸位,當你今天面臨最痛苦的時候,你要認命,你要明智的告訴自己:「時間總會過去的!」

The foolish man, in wishing for happiness, works only toward his own distress. Someone under an evil influence, in wishing to be freed from pain, deprives himself of life.

— Sakya Pandita

Dependent Arising
by Geshe Sonam Rinchen

If things were not empty of inherent existence, nothing could function and neither actions nor the agents of those actions would be feasible. It is their emptiness of inherent existence that allows everything to operate satisfactorily. When we understand the dependently arising nature of things properly, we will also understand the four noble truths: suffering, the sources of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the paths of insight that lead to this freedom from suffering. So dependent arising is crucial.

We first need to know what dependent arising or dependent existence means in general. The Tibetan expression ten ching drel war jung wa (rten cing ’brel bar ’byung ba) is used as a translation of the Sanskrit prat¦ t yasamutp› da. In English the words “arising” or “origination” are often used to translate the Tibetan jung wa (’byung ba). This can be misleading because it seems to refer to an event or occurrence with implications that something is produced, but this is not necessarily so. “Dependent arising” refers to dependence on causes and conditions but also to dependence on parts and on attribution. Everything that exists is dependently existent. If anything exists, it does so dependently.

When we think about the spiritual traditions in which we have been brought up, does this idea fit comfortably with them? Or do we believe there is something that does not rely on other factors but is independent? In fact this emphasis on the dependent nature of everything that exists is unique to the Buddha’s teachings. There have been many excellent teachers who have said many excellent and helpful things, but the Buddha is praised as an incomparable teacher because of his unsurpassable explanation of reality in terms of dependent existence.

There are two kinds of dependently arising phenomena — products and non-products. Products fit into one of two categories — they are either with or without form. Those with form are easier to identify than those without. Science is mainly concerned with investigating what, from a Buddhist point of view, is form in varying degrees of subtlety. Products without form are different kinds of awareness and non-associated compositional factors, namely those things that are neither awareness nor matter, such as persons, time, birth, ageing, duration, and impermanence.

Some assert that when we reach a very subtle level of these products, for instance particles or infinitesimal moments of time, there exist things that are functional in as much as they are produced by causes and conditions and themselves produce results, which are nevertheless unchanging. But could such things actually exist? If anything is a product and produces other phenomena, it must undergo change itself.

It is difficult for us to conceive of anything that is unchanging. Is anything that we perceive through our five senses unchanging? If not, then permanent or unchanging phenomena must appear to the sixth kind of awareness, mental consciousness, and mainly to conceptual awareness. Shut your eyes and think of your home, of something in your home or of someone close to you. An image appears. To what kind of awareness does it appear? Not to visual or auditory perception but to mental awareness. Does the image that appears in this way undergo change or not? Perhaps you left a book on the left side of the table in your room. In the meantime someone has moved it, but the image of the book on the left side of the table still appears to your mind. It is considered to be a non-product since it does not undergo change moment by moment. Mental images constantly appear to us, so it’s worth exploring what kind of phenomena they are.

In the twenty-fourth chapter of his Treatise on the Middle Way, Nagarjuna says:

Whatever arises dependently
Is explained as empty.
Thus dependent attribution
Is the middle way.
Since there is nothing whatever
That is not dependently existent,
For that reason there is nothing
Whatsoever that is not empty.

Here Nagarjuna states the Madhyamika or middle way position. Everything that exists does so dependently and everything that is dependently existent necessarily lacks independent objective existence.

What are dependently arising non-products? They are phenomena that do not come into existence through causes and conditions and thus do not undergo constant change. They are dependent on parts and on attribution. Emptiness or lack of true existence is a non-product because it does not come into being through causes and conditions and does not undergo change. Emptiness is the fundamental nature of anything that exists but is nevertheless also dependently existent because, for instance, it depends on the phenomenon whose fundamental nature it is.

It is difficult for us to gain a clear concept of non-products since they are more subtle than the things that appear to our sense perceptions. It is essential, however, to understand that both products and non-products are dependently existent.

You don’t have to do anything with your mind,
just let it naturally rest in it’s essential nature.
Your own mind, unagitated, is reality.
Meditate on this without distraction.

Know the Truth beyond all opposites.
Thoughts are like bubbles that form and dissolve in clear water.
Thoughts are not distinct from the absolute Reality,
so relax, there is no need to be critical.

Whatever arises, whatever occurs,
simply don’t cling to it, but immediately let it go.
What you see, hear, and touch are your own mind.
There is nothing but mind.

Mind transcends birth and death.
The essence of mind is pure Consciousness that never leaves reality,
even though it experiences the things of the senses.
In the equanimity of the Absolute, there is nothing to renounce or attain.

— Niguma

如何处理信仰与家庭事业的关系
惟贤法师

我今天的讲题是:如何处理信仰与家庭事业的关系。如何处理信仰与家庭事业的关系?佛教讲修行的道路,离不开信解行证,什么是信解行证呢?

一、信

在佛教四众弟子里边,在家信众是多数,约占百分之九十,出家僧众是少数,约占百分之十。出家僧众专门讲修学佛法,就等于专业,这种专业比较单纯化,没有一切累赘,所以僧众是住持正法,居士是护持正法。作为僧众应该住持正法;居士作为广大的群众具有各种能力,很多事情僧众不能做,居士可以做,所以 居士作为护法是很恰当,而且很实际,很有力量。希望我们在座的各位都作为护法,来护持正法。正法是人天眼目,你们护持正法,也就是使众生的法身慧命得到保护,这个功德是很大的。那么作为这一群力量,比较特殊,是在家修行者。

从信仰方面来讲,信仰三宝、信仰因果、信仰业报,有因必有果,有功就有德,要坚定这个信仰。这个信是正信,不是迷信,也不是邪信,而是智慧的信仰、理智的信仰。这样的话,太虚大师讲过,梁启超讲过,欧洲的科学家爱因斯坦也讲过,所以首先要确立这个观点,建立这个信仰,养成正信,巩固正信。

二、解

从解上来讲,有信必须要有解,从解之中了解基本教理,从而就能够认识到为什么要信,认识到为什么要学,巩固正信,这是解的重要。

我以《维摩诘经》来讲,对于处在家庭来说,应该有个正确的认识。《维摩诘经》上讲:虽处居家,不著三界,示有妻子,常修梵行。

“虽处居家,不著三界”,虽然住在家里面,但是在内心来讲,不要有所贪恋,要认识到三界无安,犹如火宅,是并不安乐的,三界如是,家也如是,所以不著三界。

“示有妻子,常修梵行”,有妻子有儿女,但是要晓得,与家人的聚合都是缘分,缘聚则合,缘尽则散。内心要保持清净,要依照佛法修清净之行,梵行就是清净之行,也就是说不要留恋,不要沾染,要看得清楚。一切都是因缘会合,因缘是有生有灭,有聚有散,要有个正确的观察,这是《维摩诘经》里讲的。

《维摩诘经》中就讲到对于出家的四种鉴别:第一种身出家心也出家;第二种身在家而心出家,等于说我身在尘世、心在山林,那心胸就很清高,很淡泊;第三种身出家而心不出家;第四种就是身不出家心也不出家,这是一般人。所以说出家有出世俗家、出烦恼家、出三界家,真正意义上的出家,应该是出烦恼家、出三界家。出世俗家只能说是形式上离开家庭,穿了一件僧衣,但实际上他心里面没有修养、贪恋红尘,那么就等于没出家。因此,作为在家居士,你只要心里边清净淡泊,看问题清楚明白,有个正确的人生观,也就等于出家。

另外《华严经·净行品》里智首菩萨向文殊菩萨提问,他提问的内容有十一个总类,每一个内容里面又有十种问题,实际上是一百一十个问题。这个提问主要就是说,做人怎样才殊胜?怎样才有功德?从这些方面来问的。文殊菩萨就进行了一百四十一个解答,其中就包括从在家到出家、日常生活的语言和行动,从大到小,从粗到细微。禅宗讲,生活就是道,平常心就是道,现实就是道。文殊菩萨的解答就体现了这个真义。

对于智首菩萨的提问,文殊菩萨有一句总的解答:“善用其心,则获一切胜妙功德”。你学佛走正道,你要想获得一切功德,就看你的心,要善用其心。这个善字很重要,等于儒家讲的要正心诚意。儒家讲:“格物致知,诚意正心,修身齐家,治国平天下。”格、致、诚、正,是一种修养功夫,不管儒家、道家、佛家都是共同的,不过浅深不同、宽窄不同而已。

文殊菩萨在这里说要善用其心,为什么众生有烦恼痛苦?世界上有争斗?这是什么原因?就是这些人不能善用其心,不能善用其心就恰恰能招来烦恼痛苦,一定要找出这个原因。文殊菩萨在解答里讲,不管你出家在家,你的行住坐卧、言语说话、动作走路,存心要善,要一切想到别人,想到一切众生,说的每一句话都是当愿众生如何,只想到众生,不是说愿我怎么样,这就是无我精神了。

一百四十一个“当愿”中,开头几首是关于家庭的。

(一)第一首:

菩萨在家,当愿众生,知家性空,免其逼迫。

你处在家,就要善对家庭,要认识到家的组合都是缘,有善缘有恶缘,顺心一点就是善缘,不顺心的就是恶缘,都是因缘组合,有聚有散,有分有离,都是性空的,这个要搞清楚,那么这样子就不会受逼迫,不会走投无路。

唐代有个庞道玄,他的女儿庞灵照,父女俩相当有道行。他女儿每天就以编篾活(篾活:指四川的竹器)来维持两个人的生活,而庞道玄有文采,不愿意当官,喜欢过清闲生活。他写有几首偈子,其中有几句:

日在空中行 夜在空中卧 空空空吟诗 诗空空相合 莫谓多言空 空是诸佛座

你们想想这个道理,一切都是观诸法性空,佛的境界就是空性,《华严经》上讲:

若人欲识佛境界 当净其意如虚空 远离妄想及诸取 令心所向皆无碍

心如虚空,其量无边,可以包容森罗万象。这个境界就大啊,在虚空是无挂无碍的。这个庞道玄父女,就是那么的高尚。

“莫谓多言空,空是诸佛座”,你不要说我什么都在讲空,你们要晓得空是如来的宝座,若能够证悟空性,与空性相契和,就登如来的宝座,能够了解空意就见了法身如来。《华严经》的法界观,就包括一切事物及一切事物的性与相,性就是本体,相就是现象,都包括在法界里面。

你能够观空,就能够见一切如来境界、如来净土,层层无尽。你能够观缘生法、观有,就可以晓得一切器世间、众生世间的“一、多、大、小”,从微尘 到整个世界,都看得清清楚楚。其中的佛,能够了空就是理性佛,处处都可以见到,有十种:正觉佛、愿佛、业报佛、住持佛、涅槃佛、法界佛、心佛、三昧佛、本性佛、随乐佛,这个境界大得很。所以对“空”字要有个正确的解释,不是“什么都没得了”,而是真空显妙有。了解空就能够证得无我,了解无我就可以与诸法平 等,境界就广大了。

(二)第二首:

孝事父母 当愿众生 善事于佛 护养一切

把父母当成佛想,一切众生在孝养父母时,要把父母当成佛想。这样子的话,你家中有佛,你要恭敬供养,这是彻底的大孝,希望众生都如是,那就可以普度众生,报众生恩。

(三)第三首:

妻子聚会 当愿众生 怨亲平等 永离贪著

妻子儿女聚会,其中有怨有亲,怨亲之中你不要有分别执著,亲固然可贵,怨你也要容忍,这就是缘嘛。佛法讲怨亲平等,冤家宜解不宜结,不要结怨,结了怨啊世世生生都解不了,那才不得了。怨亲平等,化冤为亲,这样子就免得贪著,从中受痛苦,受缠绕。

(四)第四首:

若得五欲 当愿众生 拔除欲箭 究竟安稳

你在五欲境界“财色名食睡”之中,就要正确面对这个境界。众生就是留恋于五欲,于五欲之中贪恋不舍就造业受苦。你看现在这个社会,歌舞厅、娱乐 厅、卡拉OK厅等很多,吃的、穿的、听的无不是欲,使人贪恋,但是作为学佛的在家菩萨、居家的居士,你就必须要正确对待。就像那个莲花一样,生在污泥之中,保持微妙香洁的品质,不为污泥所染。要有真正的菩萨行,才可以超脱。我如是,希望众生都如是。

“拔除欲箭,究竟安稳”,欲就等于箭一样,箭一射出来到身上,就要致命,丧失法身慧命,就使你不得解脱。能够看清楚欲箭而不沾染,就可以究竟安稳,永远的、彻底的得到安乐稳定,这才是真正的安乐稳定。

这四首诗都是说明在家居士应该建立正确的观点和行动,我们学佛后就必须以正法来解决与家庭和工作的问题,平心静气地平等对待一切,才处得好各种关系。只有这样,在家庭中才能够使一家人欢欢喜喜,在单位里才能与职工、群众和睦相处。

三、行

最重要的就是以因果思想,明因识果,修五戒十善之行,结合五戒十善发菩提心,以四无量心,修四摄之行。般若宗的第一代祖师龙树菩萨在《菩提资粮 论》里提出菩萨四种真实行,哪四种呢?(1)知性空而求业报;(2)知无我而生慈悲;(3)乐涅槃而行生死;(4)广布施而不求报。

第一,知性空而求业报。菩萨四真实行是很重要的,修学菩萨行要以这个为标准,我们要相信空的道理,但是不要否定因果业报的道理。由真空而妙有, 由妙有而真空,这是辩证的统一,不能说“空”是什么都没得了,业报都没得了,那是错误的。因此,在因果方面,我们就不能违背,处处要从因上着想,有好因必有好果。

第二,知无我而生慈悲。能够达到了解空的道理,就可以证无我的道理。无我就能达到身心广大、境界广大,视众生平等,他中有我,我中有他,你中有我,我中有你,平等平等的,相资相助。那么众生在苦痛中,我们就要有慈悲心去救拔,要修四无量心,不能只顾我不顾众生。所以知无我而生慈悲,一方面无我, 另一方面要生慈悲。

第三,乐涅槃而行生死。这也是菩萨行,我作为菩萨,希望清净解脱,涅槃就是清净解脱的境界,但是乐住于涅槃、耽住于涅槃,那是小乘思想,大乘菩萨他就不乐住涅槃。在生死之中度脱众生,这是一种无住涅槃。什么叫无住?由于大智慧不染生死、大悲心不住涅槃,这是莲花精神。度众生成佛,求菩提,证菩提,就在生死中求证,不是在生死之外,另外找个菩提、找个涅槃,这种莲花精神是最现实的,不能忽略这个现实。

第四,广布施而不求报。在行动上要修六度行,六度以布施为首,修财施、法施、无畏施。虽然行布施啊,但是不要执著,能施、所施、施果三轮体空,不求报,这是真正的布施。《金刚经》上讲:“布施者即非布施,是名布施。”行布施你不要执著布施,有执著就不是真布施,没有执著,三轮体空才是真正的布施。

四、证

证就是果了,有了上面的解和行,能得到什么果呢?身心得到受用,心胸就广大、安静,智慧高,看得远,自己的身心就可以得到解脱,与平常人不同,犹如脱胎换骨。进入因位菩萨境界以后,就与果位菩提相应。彻悟禅师讲:“以佛果地之觉彻我因地之心,以我因地之心证佛果地之觉,因该果海,果彻因源。”念佛都是种这个因,念一声佛号,这个佛就是果觉的佛,我们念就是因位的念,果觉的佛与因位的佛心相应,因果相应,就可以走入佛位,走入成佛的因位。因该果海,果彻因源,就是这个道理。

以上就佛教修行次第的“信解行证”,简单讲了一下,希望大家听到以后得到法喜,开启智慧,能很好地处理信仰与家庭事业的关系,在现实生活中悟到法性,证得涅槃,得到解脱!

The last four to five generations, or two hundred years of our time have brought unimaginable changes to humanity, and which are a kind of a two-edged sword, which have some apparent benefit, and un-seeable unapparent benefit, damage and challenges. The last two hundred years was one of the most changing periods of human history, and we shall have to review this period, seriously, and in depth. My generation and the earlier generations have done a great damage to nature, to the culture and to the traditions, and we have left nothing for your generation. Now you have to build your world by your own because whatever my generation and earlier generations were able to consume, the kinds of resources we have consumed, are enormous, and we have not shown any way how to restore these natural resources. So, you are now inheriting a very damaged and injured planet earth. So, this injured and damaged planet earth, how it can sustain itself in future for you, for your good living, and for a happy life, is a big question.

— 5th Samdhong Rinpoche, Lobsang Tenzin