三乘一乘究竟论
演培法师

研究佛教,实是一件不容易的事。无论关于历史的部门,教理的部门,都有种种的问题,横呈在我们面前,等待我们去解决。虽说这些问题,一直就在佛教中诤论着,但从来没有得到一致的结论。我们现在来谈他,似也不过将老问题拿出复述一遍,不一定就能得到什么满意的答案。即或自以为是解决了,他人未必就能同意。不错,事实的确是这样的,但问题之所在,不容我们不求解决。所以现在我想来谈一谈三乘究竟与一乘究竟的问题。

这一问题,是从佛教的终极目标来的。佛教的终极目标,谁都知道,是身心的究竟解脱。但应怎样加以努力,方可到达理想的解脱呢?这就要看我人的素质如何以为断了。所以佛教学者对此,特别提出种性论的一个论题。关于这一论题,在学者中,是有着不同的观点的:有的设立种性的差别,而以三乘为究竟的;有的不论差别的种性,而主一性皆成之说为究竟的。不特小乘中有这样的异说,就是大乘中也有这样不同的论调,且比小乘学者诤论得更为热烈。原来以机类分为二乘、三乘、五乘,是佛教的通说。因为行者的根机有利钝的差别,所以相应于那个教的方法,也就立出浅深高下的差别。但这只是依根机的上下指出修业证果有难易迟速而已,并没有确定那类根机到此为止,不可再求上进,那类根机可以一直向前进,而到达终极的目的。可是学者们,基于先天后天的探究,于是就发生不同的异说。公说公理,婆说婆理,谁都认为自己是对的,别人是不对的。其实,如能从善意出发,是不难求得吻合于佛陀之真意的。

三乘或一乘究竟的问题,在小乘教中,似乎不大谈到,所以向来论说此一论题的,大都着眼于大乘方面。然而事实上,我们如稍留心于(小乘)学派思想,就很容易发现小乘学派对此,也有两派不同的解说。小乘学派,向来虽说有二十部派之多,但那主要的不出四大派,就是大众系、分别说系、一切有系、犊子系。在这四大派中,依世亲的佛性论说,分别说系,是主张一乘究竟的;一切有系,是主张三乘究竟的。他们之所以有此异见,完全是出发于观点的各别。分别说者,因为置重点于空性的法上,空性之法是遍一切处而无所不在的,一切凡圣无不是从空而出的。这样,自然就走上一乘究竟的结论。佛性论卷一说:‘若依分别部说,一切凡圣众生,并以空为其本,所以凡圣众生皆从空出,故空是佛性,佛性者即大涅槃’。一切有者,因为置重于种性的人上,种性在先天方面有三乘的差别,如先天有成佛的种性,当然是可到达最高的佛位,若先天根本没成佛的种性,自然也就不能达到成佛的目的。从这思想出发,所以就走上三乘究竟的结论。佛性论卷一说:‘若依毗昙萨婆多等诸部说者,则一切众生,无有性得佛性,但有修得佛性。分别众生凡有三种:一、定无佛性,永不得涅槃,是一阐提犯重禁者;二、不定有无,若修时即得,不修不得,是贤善共位以上人故;三、定有佛性,即三乘人:一声闻从苦忍以上即得佛性,二独觉从世法以上即得佛性,三者菩萨十回向以上,是不退位时得于佛性’。此外,在俱舍论中,说三聚有情,也是这一思想的表露。一、正性定聚,是指定有佛性的有情,将来可以成为圣者的。二、邪性定聚,是指决定没有佛性的有情,不管怎样,都没有成佛可能性的。三、不定性聚,是指种性不决定的有情,可以成为圣者,也可能不得成为圣者,问题看他所遇的因缘怎样:遇到声闻者的因缘,就可成声闻,遇到缘觉者的因缘,就可成缘觉,遇到佛的因缘就可以成佛。颂说:“正邪不定聚,圣进无间余”,就是此意。上来虽仅就分别说与一切有者,对于这一重大问题的不同看法,但由此亦可看出小乘各学派对此所持的异见。由于材料的缺乏,我们固不能确指何派为何,可是从大体上讲:近于一切有者思想学派,大都是赞成三乘究竟的;近于分别说者思想的学派,可说是赞成一乘究竟的。佛性论说:小乘学者,见此二说,虽极互相乖违,但各有其道理,不能决定谁是谁非,于是,倾于此者则责于彼,倾于彼者则责于此,始终喋喋不休的在诤论着,因此知道这一问题如何为学者所重了。

小乘佛法中,对于三乘一乘究竟的问题,虽没有掀起怎样大的风浪,但大乘佛法,却对他展开热烈的论战,始终没有妥协的余地。代表三乘究竟的一方,是唯识者;代表一乘究竟的一方,是真常者。前者的根据,经有深密、楞伽(?)等的诸大乘经,论有瑜伽、显扬等的诸唯识论;后者的根据,经有法华、胜鬘、涅槃等的诸大乘经,论有佛性、宝性、无差别等诸真常论。双方摆开明显的阵线,高举鲜明的旗帜,互相引经据典,你攻我伐,虽没有得到一致的结论,但确为佛教思想史上,增添了不少色彩。现将他们不同的论点,简单的叙述如下,然后提出我们对于这一问题的看法。

唯识者说:就众生的根机考察,本来是有五性各别,那就是定性声闻、定性缘觉、定性菩萨、不定种性、无性有情的五类。在这五类有情中,除了具有菩萨种性者,可以到达最高的佛果外,其他的种性者,不独不能到达无上的佛果,而且坚定的主张有类有情,根本就是没有佛性的。一切有情,既然本来分为五种种性的各别,那我们就得反观,看看自己属于那一类的种性,如果是属于某一类的种性,质素如此就决定如此,不可再稍有改变,所以二乘种性者,决不可能再求向上,无性有情者,必不能得无上菩提。这是唯识者五性各别的独特教义,而真常者所绝对不能同情的。所以自古以来,为他宗之所非难的,大都集中于这点。

唯识者所以建立五性各别说,是由无漏种子的差别及有无而来的。谁都知道,唯识学上,种子是占有极重要的地位的,因在唯识家的眼光看来,世出世间的一切诸法生起,无不是从种子而生的,离开了种子,无一法可生。所以说到种性的各别,必然就联结到种子的问题。依唯识家的意思:无性有情,因为在先天方面,三乘无漏的种子,完全没有具备,所以永远地不能断烦恼所知二障,而证三乘的圣果,见我法二空的真理。虽说不论什么时候都在三界五趣中,或升或降的感受有漏的果报,但总是轮转在生死海中,纵然有时依于五戒十善等善事勤加修习,可是充其量仅得感受人天胜妙的果相,在这以上,无论如何,不得再为升进以越出生死流转的域外。这类有情既然不全具有无漏种子,当然就不能证得出世间无漏解脱的了,所以名为无性有情,或叫一阐提。对于无性有情,而说其后的四类为有种性,就是声闻缘觉他们,不管那一类,在先天方面,都具有无漏种子,而证得出世间的妙果。就中,定性声闻,唯具人空无漏智的种子,所以修道的结果,唯断烦恼障,悟证我空理,而达于自乘的极位|证阿罗汉果;定性缘觉,也是这样,只能到自己的无学果位。他们所不同的:声闻乘的根机下劣,不能自动自发的发心,修行,证果,必受佛或师友的教诲,因为是闻佛的教法而才开始修道的,所以名为声闻种性。缘觉乘的根机,较之于声闻人,稍微殊胜一点,所以可以不藉佛等的外缘之力,而能自动自发的发心,修行,证果,因为是自发的独力的证果,所以名为独觉种性,或叫决定独觉乘性。菩萨种性的有情,因为具有我法二空的无漏智种,所以修道的结果,不特可以断烦恼障,且可断所知障,不特能悟我空理,且亦能证法空理,因此,是决定可以达于最高佛果的,所以名为菩萨种性,或叫决定大乘种性。如再以因果说,因位名菩萨乘,果位则名佛乘。不定种性,具有菩萨的无漏种以及声闻缘觉的无漏种。这类有情,开始按照佛法修行的时候,是不能决定他证到什么果位的,要看外在的缘来说。果一开始就遇到成佛的缘,当然就直趣无上菩提,假使不然,那就要兜圈子,经声闻缘觉的证果,然后转向于菩萨乘,才得达于佛位的。不过说到不定种性,不是这样简单的,他是有四类差别的:一、声闻与菩萨的二性不定;二、缘觉与菩萨的二性不定;三、声闻、缘觉、菩萨的三性不定;四、声闻与缘觉的二性不定。所谓经小乘圣位而转达佛果,是唯约前三类说的,如果是后一类者,是不能迂回至于佛果的。因此,可以知道:唯识者所说的五性有情,真能到达究竟佛果的,唯定性菩萨与不定性中的前三类,换句话说,就是有菩萨种性的,其他种性,无论怎样,是不能到达佛果的。不定性中的菩萨性者,后来回心向大,做大菩萨,固然可至佛果,假使二乘种性,虽在不定种性中,也不能成佛。尤其是名为定性二乘的人与回心向大的二乘人,是有区别的:前者,深密经名为一向趣寂声闻种性补特伽罗;后者,深密经名为回向菩提声闻种性补特伽罗;有情种性,既是先天就决定了的,那末,你是声闻乘的决定种性,当然就去证你声闻乘的本位极果,你是缘觉乘的决定种性,当然就去证你缘觉乘的本位极果,你是菩萨乘的决定种性,当然就去证你菩萨乘的本位极果;而且各类种性所到达的各自极果,这样就是这样,是最极究竟的,所以说三乘究竟。经说一乘,唯识者不是不承认,不过这是佛陀的密意说,是方便说吧了。因为,能行的人虽有三类,所走的路只有一条,约此所走的路是一,所以佛密意说一乘,并不是否定三乘的真实性,可见一乘是方便的,解深密经无自性相品说:‘一切声闻、独觉、菩萨,皆共此一妙清净道,皆因此一究竟清净,更无第二。我依此故,密意说言唯有一乘,非于一切有情界中,无有种种有情种性’。

三乘究竟者,虽从教证、理证两方面,证成自己的所说,但并不能就此使一乘究竟者心服。以圣教说,诸大乘经说一乘究竟的多,说三乘究竟的少,所以关于一乘者的思想理论,不得不略为谈谈。以大乘涅槃经为始的诸如来藏系的经典,虽都尽力的主张悉皆成佛论,但在这儿不能一一的去说明它,只能就大家所共知的几部说一说,那最早而又最力主张一乘究竟的,是法华经;如该经的方便品中说:‘十方佛土中,唯有一乘法,无二亦无三,除佛方便说’;又说:‘若有闻法者,无一不成佛’。从闻法而成佛说,可以想像法华虽力说一切归入于一佛乘,但作为那个思想根据的,如从表面上去看,是由有情在过去无数的轮回之间,曾经听过法华经,以此听法华经的因缘,所以当来决定成佛,这是有点近于所谓新熏种子说的。其次,胜鬘经说:‘何以故?说一乘道,如来四无畏成就师子吼说,若如来随彼所欲而方便说,即是大乘,无有三乘,三乘者,入于一乘;一乘者,即第一义乘’。而最彻底主张一乘究竟的大乘涅槃经说:‘我常宣说乃至一阐提等亦有佛性。一阐提等虽无善法,但佛性亦善,以未来有故。一阐提等悉有佛性,何以故?一阐提等,定当得成阿耨多罗三藐三菩提故’。既说一切众生悉有佛性,一阐提等终有成佛之期,那就不管什么众生,必然有接受开发那个佛性的机会,所以这是佛的彻底究竟之谈。经说有一阐提不得成佛,真常者也并不是不承认,不过这是约不了义说的,究竟了义之说,终于是说阐提也成佛的。所以真常者根据这些圣典,坚认一乘真实,三乘方便。一乘教,为一切众生,悉令成佛之法,三乘教,是诱引未熟之机,说三乘的各别因果,为卑近之法。一乘者,全然排斥五性各别说,而认为是方便的教意。如着俱舍论疏的法宝法师说:无性有情之说,是小乘的不了之谈,在大乘,是绝对不许可的。所谓佛性,为一切众生本来具有的真性,佛即果人之称,是种子因本之义。荆溪在金錍论中说:‘众生皆有果人之性’。虽然如此,但欲开觉他,敢说是不容易做到的。喻如璞玉,必须经过相当时间的琢磨,然后才能发出光亮的色彩。众生本具佛性也是这样,假使不待修治之功,是不能开显其德的。不过,在开显其德的过程中,有的众生实因根机太钝,业障太深,不能当下担当,佛这才不得已的说三乘法,曲逗众生的机宜,希望众生渐次调柔,而终于了解自己也可成佛。显示这一思想最清楚的,无过于法华经。法华经依过去的因地说:过去发过菩提心的有情,由于中间的一度退失,不知自己是菩萨,所以佛以方便教化摄引他们。他们从方便教化中,以自证智证到自己的果位,一方面知道自己到了什么程度,一方面似又觉得应有平等一味的果证。如舍利弗在法华会上表示:‘我等同入一法性,云何如来以小乘法而见济度’?由于他们自知所证的不究竟,还想进一步的求证更高的果位,所以佛陀点破他们说:‘汝等所行是菩萨道’,你们不要看轻自己,你们不要以为过去的时间白费,你们所行所为都与菩萨道不相违背的,你们将来个个都能到达我这样的地位。二乘人的终当入于究竟一乘,胜鬘经中也曾这样说:‘世尊!彼(二乘)先所得地,不愚于法,不由于他,亦自知得有余地,必当得阿耨多罗三藐三菩提。何以故?声闻缘觉乘,皆入大乘;大乘者,即是佛乘,是故三乘即是一乘’。一乘究竟的思想理论,说到这儿,可以说是达到登峰造极了,所以真常者的主张一乘究竟三乘方便,完全是基于这些大乘佛典的,正因为是如此,所以在这点上,一步也不肯让。

上来叙述的三乘究竟说与一乘究竟说,各有他的经论依据,如从彼此的极意说,虽不容易和会,但思想的不同,毕竟是从教义而来的。我们知道,唯识家的立场,认为真如是凝然不动的,他只可为诸法的所依体,却决不可变作诸法;可是从诸法的事相上看,森罗万象是千差万别的,所以有有必然就有无,有菩萨性必应有二乘性,有决定种性必有不定种性,所以他的五性各别,可说是必然的道理。然而所以有一性皆成之说,如在佛陀的立场上讲,这是奖励不定性的有情,回向无上菩提的。至于真常者的立场。认为真如是随缘而能为诸法的,诸法的当体不外就是真如,一切众生既是都有真如,当然就无不具有佛性,具有佛性,那是一定要成佛的。然而所以说种性的差别,这只是对当机者的暂时差别,而决不是永久的差别。这样,两派的主张,从教义上看,虽因各有根据,无法为之调和,但从众生着眼,似乎并非没有融合的余地。要知大悲佛陀的出世,完全是为了利益有情,觉得运用三乘可以有益于众生的,佛就说三乘法,觉得运用一乘可以有益于众生的,佛就说一乘法,可见讲三乘说一乘,无非是为的众生,离了众生,不管怎么说,都很难会通上述两个不同体系的。关于这个,性空的般若经中,曾给我们一个很好的启示说:佛说般若时,诸天都来到会中听般若,为诸天之首的帝释天,听了般若的甚深广大,欢喜的不禁赞叹起般若的功德来,并且劝发那些没有发菩提心的,发起大菩提心来,至于已入涅槃的圣者,虽不一定要发菩提心,但若自动的能够发菩提心,我也极端的欢喜,所谓上人更求上人法,那是最好不过的。由此可知,能不能成佛,在一般凡夫方面,就看他能不能发菩提心,在二乘圣者方面,就看他能不能发回向心,能发菩提心,回向心的,无有不得成佛的。所以从般若性空的立场上讲,我以为一乘是佛陀的究竟之谈,龙树菩萨也是侧重于这方面的。不过,性空者说一乘,是主后天的佛种从缘起,真常者说一乘,是主先天的佛性本具有,这点不同,我们是又不可不知。

When we’re deluded there’s a world to escape. When we’re aware, there’s nothing to escape.

— Bodhidharma

I Want To Be… Peaceful
by James Ishmael Ford

Perhaps you’re stressed. No doubt this is the age of stress. Fortunately, there are many things you can do about it. Among them, a number of styles of meditation will help to slow things down, give you a bit of space, a moment of calm in the storm. There sure seem to be a lot of storms that need calming. So it’s natural that many are turning to meditation as a significant help toward mental and physical well-being.

Of course that’s not the only reason people turn to meditation. Nor is it even the most important. Perhaps you’ve experienced some spiritual question. Maybe you have a sense there’s something missing in your life. Perhaps you’ve noticed that whether things are going well or badly there always seems to be a hole. This longing for some sense of wholeness is what brings many to meditation.

Or maybe you’re thinking that things are possibly not the way everyone seems to think they are. You’ve noticed discrepancies between what you’ve been told and what you actually see and hear and experience. And, with that, perhaps you have an intuition that meditation of one sort or another might point you toward a deeper, more accurate take on what really is.

What is interesting is how meditation can be so important for us, whether we’re looking to enhance our well-being, hoping to get a bit of a better handle on our lives, or throwing our lot into the great exploration of this life’s meaning and purpose.

Whatever the reason we take up meditation, what I’ve found is that when we stop and look, step away from our assumptions just for a moment, and take up the spiritual discipline of practice, things do happen. It can be shocking to discover how much is in our hands. William James observed, “Each of us literally chooses, by his way of attending to things, what sort of universe he shall appear to himself to inhabit.” Synergies begin when we bring our attention to the ways of the world, and the ways of our hearts. We discover new territory and new possibility. An old and dear friend summarised this, observing how the cultivation of a “peaceful mind can blossom into a profound mind.”

Of course, there are many kinds of meditation, one or another for every purpose under the sun. Personally, I’m a bit of a minimalist. And so whatever your reason for considering meditation, maybe someone interested in minimums might be helpful to you.

Here’s what I have to offer: I find the practice of sitting down, shutting up, and paying attention is the most useful path to a more healthy life. It will help us find peace and sometimes open us up to ever deeper possibilities.

Sit down. Shut up. Pay attention. These are the points that allow the synergies to happen. As the modern Chinese master Sheng Yen said, “As the mind becomes clearer, it becomes more empty and calm, and as it becomes more empty and calm, it grows clearer.” This is the spiral path of clarity. The more deeply we engage it, the deeper we become. It is here we find that peaceful mind. With this we find the place is set where we can find a profound mind, opening ourselves to a path of wisdom in a world of confusion.

SIT DOWN

When I first began Buddhist meditation I met a woman who was a longtime student of Zen, and who was considered to have achieved deep insight. What is important to note here is that she was a quadriplegic; since her accident she’d never “sat” in any traditional way. Whenever I talk with people about sitting, I remember her. In fact the Buddha told us there are four postures suitable to meditation: standing, walking, lying down and sitting down. They all work. They all have a place.

That said, for most of us it seems best to begin the practice by sitting down. Taking our place this way establishes our intention and allows us to focus on the basics of the practice.

When someone says something like, “I don’t need to sit, my spiritual practice is golf” (or knitting, or archery, or target shooting), I think they might well be missing something. Now, I have nothing against golf, or any of these activities. While each of them brings gifts, true meditation — at least the meditation disciplines associated with Buddhism — bring us to something more important. And we start by taking our place, by sitting down.

Just sit. If you can hold your body upright it is better. You can sit on the floor on a pillow or on a chair. Whichever you chose, it helps to have your bottom a bit higher than your knees. This establishes a triangular base that supports your torso. Pushing the small of the back slightly forward and holding the shoulders slightly back helps create that upright position. Sitting this way, you can immediately feel your lungs opening up and each breath invigorating your body.

Place your hands in your lap. In Zen, we like to sit with our eyes open. Many traditions prefer to close the eyes. Experiment a little. Find what seems to work best for you. Personally, I like to see where I’m going.

SHUT UP

Maybe you’ve heard the story of the professor who visited the Zen master. The professor talks and talks and talks, until his throat is dry. Finally the master offers him some tea. The professor thanks the teacher, who then sets out two cups and begins to pour tea into the first cup, and pours and pours. The tea flows out of the cup and covers the table.

Most of the time when people hear this story they identify with the Zen master. We all know people like the professor, people who just don’t know when to shut up. But the truth is that we’re such people ourselves. That is you. That is me. It’s a human thing.

For the most part we are running a steady commentary on life. We’re judging, we’re refining, we’re planning, we’re regretting. We tend to run tape loops around anger or resentment, around desire and wanting, around how we think things are or are supposed to be. What if we did just shut up?

In Japanese monasteries, a novice monk would have his place in the meditation hall pointed out to him and he’d just go sit there. Shutting up in the external sense would be obvious to him because in old Japanese monasteries if you got out of hand you could catch a beating. But as for handling those loops of noise inside the head, well, almost nothing is said about that.

The invitation here is not to put a complete stop to our thoughts, whether they’re those old tape loops we run over and over, or more creative and possibly even useful thoughts. Truth is, stopping all thought is a biological impossibility. But we can slow it all down. We can stop our thoughts and feelings from grabbing us by the throat.

Shutting up is the invitation.

Just be quiet.

PAY ATTENTION

But pay attention to what? Our minds can wander, and wildly. We plan and we regret; we wish for something else. We rarely are simply present. So, how to deal with it?

Here’s a start. Take five breath cycles, putting a number on each inhalation and exhalation, counting one as you inhale, two as you exhale and so on to ten. The invitation here is to notice. When you don’t notice — and realise you don’t notice — return to one. Don’t blame yourself. Just return to one. Don’t blame something else. Return to one. Just notice. Just pay attention.

Or you allow your attention to ride on the natural breathing without counting.

Or you can just pay attention.

Many years ago there was an American who made his fortune doing business in East Asia. Financially comfortable, he decided to retire and to enjoy the fruits of his labours. Along the way he’d become fascinated with jade, and decided to learn all there was to know about it.

He hired the foremost authority on the subject, who instructed him to come to her home once a week for a tutorial. As he arrived on the first day, he was greeted and given some tea. Then the man was handed a large piece of jade, and with that, the tutor disappeared for an hour. When the tutor returned she claimed the jade, thanked the patron for his time, and told him his next appointment was scheduled for the same time the following week. The man wasn’t sure what to make of this experience, but he’d learned patience in his years in business, and deferred for the time being to the reputation of his tutor.

Sure enough, the same thing happened again the next week. This time the patron was less willing to defer, but he restrained himself, and came back for a third time. And then a fourth time. Each visit repeated itself exactly: some tea, some small talk, the piece of jade was put into his hand, and the tutor left for an hour.

Finally, after many weeks, he was once again handed the jade and the tutor departed. At the end of that hour he couldn’t contain himself any longer. Everything that had been boiling within him burst forth when the tutor returned. “I have no idea what you think you’re doing! But I’m no fool. You’ve just been wasting my time and my money. And now, to add insult to injury, this time you put a piece of fake jade into my hand.” And he was right — it was fake.

Just pay attention.

Perhaps you’re stressed. Perhaps you have some burning question about life and death. Perhaps you intuit there is something more to all this than you’ve been told.

Sit down. Shut up. Pay attention.

You never know when it will reveal what is true and what is fake.

Lotus 170.

Our activities are like children’s games: They go on as long as we continue, they stop as soon as we stop them.

— Longchenpa

学习唯识对净土宗念佛之人的现实指导意义
惟贤法师

一、唯识的中心是改造心地

唯识是讲什么的?唯识的中心思想是改造心地。《华严经》讲:“心如工画师,能画诸世间。五蕴悉从生,无法而不造。”《心地观经》讲:“心生法生,心灭法灭。心染则国土染,心净则国土净。”我们的心地贪嗔痴重就形成染污现象,我们心净,内心清净,以清净心、善心就可以形成现实的和谐清净世界,万法由心生嘛。

唯识学就是阐明“三界唯心,万法唯识”这个道理的,《华严经》讲:“三界虚妄,唯识与心作。”心能造业,就有无明和业所感的这个器世界。心能转业,以净心就可以形成一种清净世界,和谐的世界。所以阿弥陀佛他有净心与愿心,就形成西方极乐世界。弥勒菩萨以净心在欲界天形成了兜率内院。将来弥勒下生,龙华三会就是五戒十善那么一个清净的世界。《瑜伽师地论》就是弥勒菩萨说的,是唯识宗的根本大论,详尽地阐述了这个世间(有情世间、器世间、圣者世间)是如何由心识建立的。

二、念佛号就是一切唯心的体现

世亲菩萨是唯识宗祖师,他写有一部《往生论》, 解释这个净土的教义。《往生论》说:“此三种成就愿心庄严,略说入一法句故;一法句者,谓清净句;清净句者,谓真实智慧无为法身故。”什么叫清净句?就是佛号。我们能够念一声佛号,就形成极乐世界的三种庄严:佛庄严具八种功德;菩萨庄严具四种功德;国土庄严具十七种功德。这个功能就这么大。心力强过一切,这就是一切唯心的道理。

正确的思想指导正确的行动, 有正确的行动就有正确的结果。尽管物质决定意识,但是意识的反作用那个力量强大,可以改造自己,可以改造世界。所以念佛功德相当大!以清净句形成庄严。我们的祖师讲:若人但念阿弥陀,是名无上深妙禅。念佛就是参禅,为什么这样讲呀?参禅就是恢复你的那个清净心,恢复佛心。佛心就是清净心、广大心、正直心、平等心、慈悲心。念一句佛号消除贪嗔痴,修慈悲观这就恢复了佛心。

所以念佛之人, 必须懂唯识的道理, 这是佛法的根本思想, 学习唯识对于念佛, 有着最现实的指导意义。这样,念佛就不是盲念、瞎念,念一句就有一句的功德,否则如果你心不到,哪怕你一天到晚念得再多,念得唇疲舌焦,也起不到多大作用。因为佛法是改造心灵的,三界唯心,万法唯识。心能创造一切,心又能认识一切,就像一个工程师一样,绘了蓝图,根据蓝图修造房子,修造了以后又要凭“心”来认识它合不合标准,这就是三界唯心、万法唯识的道理。也就是《华严经》讲的“心如工画师, 能画诸世间。五蕴悉从生,无法而不造”这个意趣。

三、念佛与人生佛教思想一致

人生佛教是太虚大师提出来的。太虚大师是倡导唯识学的。那时我在缙云山读书,他给我们讲过唯识学,也讲过人生佛教。要改造心灵,走上佛的道路,必须把人做好。他有两首诗,一首就是:“仰止唯佛陀,完成在人格。人成即佛成,是名真现实。”你要想成佛吗,先把人做好,人做好就可以成佛,这是基础。还有一首诗讲:“如果发愿学佛,先须立志做人。三皈四维淑世,八德十善严身。”这个就比较具体了,怎样学佛呀? 怎样做人呀? 做人的标准,三皈,要皈依三宝;四维,要懂得礼义廉耻;八德就是孝、悌、忠、信、礼、义、廉、耻; 十善就是身三“ 不杀、不盗、不邪淫”,口四“不妄语、不粗恶语、不离间语、不绮语” , 意三“不贪、不嗔、不痴”。

太虚大师就在这首诗里提出做人的具体标准:三皈四维淑世,八德十善严身。这与净土宗的三福业相一致。净土宗经典《观无量寿经》具体指出:“念佛人要修习三种福业。”哪三福?“一者孝养父母,奉事师长,慈心不杀,修十善业。二者受持三皈,具足众戒,不犯威仪。三者发菩提心,深信因果,读诵大乘,劝进行者。”此三福业,第一代表人天乘的善,第二代表声闻缘觉乘的善,第三代表大乘菩萨行的善。所以学佛,先从做人作起,这是最起码的。

在抗战时期,有一个记者问太虚大师:什么是佛教最重要的一法?什么是中国最急需的一件事?太虚大师就答,佛教最重要的一法是讲业报、讲因果。不懂业报、不相信因果这就不是佛法,学佛要懂因果。第二个问题什么是中国最急需的一件事呀?太虚大师说:“道德。”要以德化国家,国家才能太平,社会才能安定,人类才能和谐。太虚大师精通唯识学,处处讲改造心灵。心灵不改造,道德不建立,因果不彰显,这个社会就混乱了。

所以大家就要明白这个道理,学习唯识对这个念佛人的现实指导意义很大,心的力量很大。你念佛,若是能够以佛的五心“清净心、广大心、正直心、平等心、慈悲心”来念,当下就是净土,当下就是极乐!你们就要有这个心,有这个心就可以创造和谐的世界、和谐的团体、和谐的家庭,可以增加团结力、向上力、革新力,就起这个大作用。

Those who, when hearing about emptiness, are inspired with great joy again and again, so that their eyes moisten with tears, and the hairs on their body stand on end, possess the potential for complete awakening. They are the proper vessels for these teachings, to them one should teach the ultimate truth.

— Chandrakirti

How to Let Go
by Lama Thubten Yeshe

Good morning all of you. The director of Vajra Yogini institute has asked me to speak about the integration of emptiness into everyday life.

What is emptiness? Emptiness (shunyata) is the reality of the existence of ourselves and all the phenomena around us. According to the Buddhist point of view, seeking reality and seeking liberation amount to the same thing. The person who doesn’t want to seek reality doesn’t really want to seek liberation, and is just confused.

If you seek reality and you think that it has to be shown to you by a Tibetan Lama, that you have to look for it outside yourself, in another place — maybe in Shangrila! — then you are mistaken. You cannot seek reality outside yourself because you are reality.

Perhaps you think that your life, your reality was made by society, by your friends. If you think that way you are far from reality. If you think that your existence, your life was made by somebody else it means that you are not taking the responsibility to understand reality.

You have to see that your attitudes, your view of the world, of your experiences, of your girlfriend or boyfriend, of your own self, are all the interpretation of your own mind, your own imagination. They are your own projection, your mind literally made them up. If you don’t understand this then you have very little chance of understanding emptiness.

This is not just the Buddhist view but also the experience of Western physicists and philosophers — they have researched into reality too. Physicists look and look and they simply cannot find one entity that exists in a permanent, stable way: this is the Western experience of emptiness.

If you can imagine that then you will not have any concrete concepts; if you understand this experience of physicists then you will let go of your worldly problems — but you don’t want to understand.

At the energy level there is space and there is body, and both have the same four elements. There is an interdependence between these two energies, the one around us and our own energy.

You check up, analyse: your skin, your bones, your nose, face are only energy, no more. If you try to separate them from energy then nothing will be left of your skin, your bones, your nose, your face. Everything is simply energy. If you understand the energy level of existence, if you really understand who you are, what you are in this way then you will break down your concepts, your uptightness, you will break down the preconceptions you have of your own self-existence. But no way! You are always uptight and that is why you have problems.

It seems to me that we twentieth century people are against nature, against reality, the very opposite of reality. Each moment we build up our artificial, polluted ego; we cover ourselves with heavy ego blankets — one, two, ten, one hundred blankets against nature, against reality.

In industrialised countries we disturb nature, we don’t appreciate the value of nature. Nature has its own value but we shake nature, we completely change it, we don’t respect the harmony of nature. We destroy this harmony because we don’t communicate with nature.

Modern life the product of the intellectual mind, and we create it. The intellectual mind is superstition. We don’t understand reality, and the intellectual life that we live keeps us far from reality.

So we don’t accept what we are. We are always looking to cover ourselves with thick blankets and say ‘this is me.’ We hide our own reality and run away from natural beauty, completely neglecting it. By not touching our reality our modern life becomes so complicated and we create problems with our superstitions. We are like a spider spinning his web, climbing on his thread then falling down; climbing up again and falling down again. In the same way we build our own intellectual web, a way of life, that is so complicated, that doesn’t touch reality, that is so difficult to live in. This construction arises from our own mind and does not arise from anything else.

If I told you are nothing, you are zero, that you are nothing that you think you are, then you would be shocked. ‘What is this monk saying?’ But what if I say that it is the truth! In fact you are non duality, non self-existence. You do not exist, relatively or absolutely, as you think you do. If you really understood this then you would really gain satisfaction and peace. But as long as you hold on to the fantasy, concrete conception of yourself and project this wrong conception onto your environment, then no way will you understand reality!

In Western cities nowadays, you can see, the older you are the more problems you have. When we are young, not so many problems, but then there are drugs and sex, and eventually they become dissatisfying. Then marriage is dissatisfying, then more depression, more depression. You can see, this technical society produces more depressed people than the countryside does. Countryside people live more naturally.

So as your body becomes bigger and your brain becomes wider, you have more and more problems and become more and more depressed. The more money you have the more problems come. You can see this. It shows we are deluded, polluted, degenerated, that our life is too intellectual, too covered by wrong conceptions.

You only take care of your body, you never take care of your mind, and the result of this imbalance is depression. For most Western people this is the case: only the body is reality and they don’t care about the existence of the mind, the soul, the consciousness. They don’t believe they can change their mind. They can change their nose through an operation but they don’t believe they change their mind. And when you believe this then no way can you resolve your depression.

I was really surprised to learn that there was a French philosopher before the coming of Jesus Christ on this earth who explained about the consciousness and the body. That the evolution of the mind was different from the evolution of the body and that our mind, consciousness is something that is everywhere, not just localised in the heart or the brain. This surprised me very much because it is very Buddhist. And you have forgotten this French philosopher’s declaration, haven’t you?

Our thoughts, our mind or consciousness is mental energy and cannot be localised in the body. It cannot be touched, it has no form and does not travel in time and space. We cannot touch it or grasp at it.

What is important to understand is that the view you have of yourself and the view you have of your environment are based on your own mind: they are a projection of your mind and that is why they are not reality.

I will give you a good example. When a French man or woman looks for a girl or boyfriend, there is this research energy from both sides and when suddenly they see each other they make up an incredible story. ‘Oh, so beautiful! Nothing wrong inside or outside.’ They build up a perfect myth. They push and push, the mind makes it all up. If they are Christian they say, ‘Oh, he looks just like Jesus.’ Or ‘She looks just like and angel. She is so nice, so pure. I wish always to hear her!’ Actually, they are just projecting their own fantasies onto each other.

If she is Hindu, then he would say, ‘Oh she looks like Kali, like Mother Earth, like my universal mother. I hope to always be near her. She will teach me who I am and where I am going. Each time I see her, my whole body shakes. I am sure that it must be incredible karma! And because it is our karma I have to serve her, to accept!’ You understand? Actually, you are making the karma at that moment, you are inventing it. Of course, you do have some connection, but….

And if you are Buddhist you fold your hands and say, ‘Oh, she is a dakini and she is showing me the true nature of all thing.’ You understand? ‘When I am near her she gives me energy, energy. Before, I was so lazy, I couldn’t move, I was like a dead person. But now whenever I go near her I can’t believe my energy!’ I tell you, all this is superstitious interpretation. You think that she is your spiritual friend and that before you were not so clear and that now she speaks to you about dharma and everything becomes clearer. And all she does is really perfect, even her kaka and pipi are so pure! Excuse me, perhaps i shouldn’t talk like this — I’m a Buddhist monk! But when we speak about Buddhism, about reality, then we have to speak practically from daily life, about what is earthy, what we can touch and see, not just get caught up in concepts.

What I mean is this: you should recognise how every appearance in our daily life is in fact a false projection of your own mind. Your own mind makes it up and becomes an obstacle to touching reality. This is why, our entire life, no matter what kind of life we have, it is a disaster. If you have a rich life, your life is a disaster. If you have a middle class life, your life is a disaster. Of you have a poor life, your life is even more of a disaster! You become a monk and your life is a disaster. You become a nun and your life is a disaster. If you become a Christian, your life is a disaster. If you become a Hindu, your life is a disaster. If you become a a Buddhist, your life is a disaster. If you become a Muslim, your life is also a disaster.

Be honest. Be honest with yourself!

Even if you go to a cave, disaster! You can stay in a mountain cave, in the snowy mountains, and still you carry your ego with you. You carry your entire world with you and all your fantasy clothing doesn’t help.

I’m not talking about religion here, I’m talking about personal things, who we are, what we are, where we are going, what we are doing! I am disaster, my mind is making it. Everything is always with me, always with me, my attitudes poison me. That is what I am talking about.

All this religion you follow… as long as you don’t touch reality in yourself, as long as you don’t eradicate your fantasies, you are a disaster. (Now I am disaster hot!)

In fact, reality is very simple. The simplicity of the mind can touch reality, and meditation is something that goes beyond the intellect and brings the mind into its natural state.

We have this pure nature already, this reality exists in us now, it is born with us. Of course, I’m not saying that having this pure nature means you are Buddha or God already: that is not what I’m saying.

There are two interpretations possible about this pure nature.

Our consciousness or our soul are conventionally not contaminated, not really, absolutely contaminated or polluted by our fantasy. And our consciousness can be compared to the sky that is temporarily covered by clouds: the pure nature of our mind can be temporarily covered by our fantasy-ego. Our fantasy-ego is like clouds, sometimes black, heavy; sometimes a little bit of white comes, sometime yellow clouds, sometimes red. Eventually, they all pass and disappear.

What I am saying is that the essence of your consciousness, your truth, your soul is not absolutely negative, it does not have an essentially negative character. Our mind is like the sky and our problems of ego grasping and self pity are like clouds. You should not believe ‘I am my ego, I am my problems, therefore I cannot solve my problems.’ WRONG!

You can see. Sometime we are so clear in our life, we are almost radiating. We can have this experience RIGHT NOW. NOW!

So it is wrong to think that we are always a disaster; not true. Sometimes we are clean-clear, sometimes we are disaster. So, stay in meditation, just keep in that clean-clear state as much as possible. All of us can have this clean-clear state of mind, we can have it.

I will give you an example. You will notice that most of the time when we first wake up our mind is clear. Why? Because we are not yet influenced by the artificial intellectual pollution of our thoughts. This is why we advise meditation in the morning. When you sleep, all your rubbish problems and disaster thinking just naturally go into an unconscious state, into clean-clear consciousness. Just naturally the senses close and there is no more grasping at sense objects. This is why sleep is sometimes very good, especially if you are restless and full of fantasy and garbage thoughts in the mind. It is a natural thing, sleep. The functioning of a human being is something so natural.

The tantric teachings of Tibetan Buddhism explain that at death time also you experience this reality. And it is complete bliss, it is the best experience of your life and the highest experience of reality. You have heard about this clear light? It is the highest experience of reality.

Why? Why is death the highest experience? Why is life not the highest experience? Because our life-mind is full of intellectualising, full of thinking, full of speculation, full of fantasies. But at the time of death fantasies naturally stop, the gross I naturally stops. Our nose and mouth and ears, our six consciousnesses, naturally stop. These consciousness, these busy fantasy resources are packed away into the soul, the clear light consciousness, and this becomes like our own nuclear energy that everything else has completely gone into. This is the natural, absolutely natural explanation of the human being.

With meditation we can change the inner flow of our energy, we can change bad times, that time, this time, we can release our emotions.

Actually, maybe this is the moment to meditate. My feeling is to meditate now. So close your eyes, don’t think ‘I am meditating,’ just close your eyes and whatever view is there, whatever vision is there in your mind just be aware. Don’t interpret good, bad. Just be like a light, your consciousness is like a light and light doesn’t think ‘I like this, I like that’; it is just a light. Whatever is in your consciousness, whatever experience, just be aware, that is all.

Whatever you experience at the moment, whatever colour, whatever appearance is there, just stay aware. Be aware. If it’s black energy, then that black energy is clean-clear. It it’s white energy, just feel that clean-clear state.

Be aware of whatever is happening. No interpretation. Especially if nothing is coming, believe that this is the truth, and if nothing is going, that is zero, that is truth, reality.

Don’t try to hold on to something or to reject something. Just have intensive awareness.

The entirety of you has the characteristic of space, of non-duality. This non-duality is your character. Your energy floats into the space of non-duality. The cosmos energy comes into your entire body and your body energy goes into the cosmos energy.

All your egotistic, individualistic views vanish, all interdependent relationships disappear. Try to actualise this experience.

Therefore Buddha said: there is no dualistic form, there is no dualistic sound, there is no dualistic smell, there is no dualistic taste, there is no dualistic touch, there is no dualistic view, there is no dualistic nose, tongue, there is no dualistic leg, no dualistic stomach, there is no dualistic bone, no dualistic heart, no dualistic brain. All this energy is conventional. At the absolute level there is only the non-dualistic reality.

So, try to touch this non-dualistic reality. LET GO!

There are no dualistic friends because there is no dualistic me. There is no dualistic enemy because there is no dualistic me. There is no dualistic girlfriend because there is no dualistic me. There is no dualistic boyfriend because there is no dualistic me.

Therefore, the mind is in an equal state of non-duality. It is an experience of equality, of harmony, a universal experience, because all individual objects are just projected by concepts and superstition.

Experience this total harmony, this total peace. In this state there is no more pleasure, no more suffering. Everything is simply a projection of the human mind.

So, now we dedicate with prayers: May all sentient beings discover that all the appearances of their ego are projections of their mind. Whatever self-existent thoughts, whatever concrete concepts of objects, whatever fears they have, may they discover them to be mental projections and also may the nature of the mind be recognised as non-dual.

Lama Yeshe 53.

The seat of everything is only the mind. It is the mind that leads you to the suffering of samsara or the joy of nirvana. And it is the mind that gives you every result that you hope for. It is like a jewel. I bow to this mind.

— Mahasiddha Saraha

放下抱怨
文| 安小悦

在禅宗里,放下可谓最高境界。放下,不仅仅是单单指放下物质上的东西,还包括名利、贪欲等等尘境染念,要心里没有一丝一毫的粘著。在这些万缘放下中当然也包括“放下抱怨”。

抱怨是我们生活中经常可以遇到的一种负面情绪。做错了事,丢了东西,或者受到不公平的待遇,心中就会产生一种不满、自责、怨怼的情感,这种负面情绪经由嘴巴抒发出来就成了抱怨。

看看我们的周围乃至我们自己的生活,几乎到处都有抱怨:有的人抱怨运气不好,该升职的时候偏偏出现了意外;有的人抱怨没有出生在大富大贵之家,因此工作不称心;有的人抱怨房子太小,车子太旧,钞票太少;有的人抱怨明明想要个儿子,偏偏生了个女儿;甲抱怨生活太辛苦,乙抱怨生活太无聊;张三抱怨天太热,李四抱怨天太冷;上班迟到的抱怨堵车,晚归家的抱怨工作太忙抱怨,生活中随时随地都会发生。

可以说,如果你想抱怨,生活中的许多事情和人都会成为抱怨的对象,但如果换一种心理,那么生活中的一切又都可以不抱怨。诸如我的一网友在博客中这样写道:早上起晚了,抱怨的人会说:“又要扣工资了”,不抱怨的人会想“是不是我太累了,该好好休息一下了”。走在路上,与别人撞了一下,抱怨的人说:“没长眼睛啊”,不抱怨的人可能想都没想,最多会想他是没留神不小心。工作上辛辛苦苦地完成了一个任务,自认无可挑剔,交上去才发现有个小错误,抱怨的人会说:“白辛苦了一天,真倒霉”,不抱怨的人会想“下次一定小心,吸取教训”。喝水呛了,抱怨的人会说:“倒霉透了,喝口水都有麻烦”,不抱怨的人会想“我现在有点急躁了,需要沉稳一点”。晚上回家了,累得不行,抱怨的人会说:“为什么生活这么累啊”,不抱怨的人会想“又过了一天,收获不小,现在马上休息,明天还要好好工作”⋯⋯

在这短短的文字里,体现出来的却是悲观与乐观的两种不同的人生态度,而我和这位网友一样,更倾向于后一种“不抱怨”的人生态度。

可是在日常生活中,抱怨又属人之常情。毕竟生活中有那么多的不如意,那么多的不顺心,适当的向别人诉一诉心里的苦闷,倒一倒心头的苦水当然也有助于缓解一下自己的心理压力和恢复正常的心态。但是过则不及,如果一味的抱怨,不停的诉苦则是不可取的。其不可取在于:你抱怨,就如同向自己的鞋子里放入了石子,使你行路更加的艰难。喜欢抱怨的人,有的认为只有自己才是对的,有的认为怀才不遇,有的认为是社会太不公平遇到不如意的事,要抱怨一番,遇到困难的事,又要抱怨一番。喜欢抱怨的人,总能为找到借口为自己进行开脱。

但是,仔细的想一想当我们在抱怨之后,心里是不是就轻松了呢?心情是不是就快乐了呢?不,抱怨之后通常的情形是非但不轻松、不快乐,我们往往心情更糟,更不快乐。那抱怨如同一堆乌云一 般,更加沉重地压在我们的心上。

有的人遇到一丁点儿不如意的事,就抱怨个不停。好像整个世界,都抛弃了他似的。而他的这种负面情绪带给别人的也是一种不快,因此当然不可能受到大家的欢迎。而经常的抱怨,就像是一个被针头扎破的气球一样,只让别人和自己泄气,没有任何的积极意义。

著名的成功学大师安东尼认为:人与人之间为什么有差别?无论是从自身的成功体会出发,还是从对众多成功人士的深入研究出发,安东尼得出的结论都是:差别只在于我们的心态及做法。积极的做法和心态将成就美丽和幸福的人生,而消极的做法和心态必将让生活成为炼狱。

曾经有两个很出色的兄弟,一个少年喜欢弹琴,想成为一名音乐家;另一个少年爱好绘画,想成为一名美术家。然而,他们却突然遭遇了一场灾难。结果,想当音乐家的哥哥,再也无法听见任何声音; 想当美术家的弟弟,再也无法看到这个五彩缤纷的世界。两兄弟都非常伤心,难过,一边流泪一边怨恨命运的不公。他们的父亲就在他们的身边,他镇定地对哥哥用手语比划着说:“你的耳朵虽然坏了, 但是眼睛还是明亮的,为什么不改学绘画呢!”然后,他又对弟弟说:“你的眼睛尽管坏了,但是耳朵还是灵敏的,为什么不改学弹琴呢?”两兄弟听了,心里一亮。他们从此不再抱怨命运的不公,开始了新的追求。后来,耳聋的哥哥成了美术家,名扬四海;眼瞎的弟弟最终成为音乐家,饮誉天下。

对于我们每一个人来说,没有一种生活是完美的,也没有一种生活会让一个人完全满意。而对于那些让我们心怀不快的人和事,我们虽然做不到从不抱怨,但是却可以以一种积极的生活态度去努力进取,尽量的让自己减少一些抱怨。要知道,当事情处在很坏的境况的时候,无休尽的抱怨除了让事情变得更糟之外,并没有其他更多的好处。当你抱怨完了,还剩下什么呢?抱怨之后还是得面对这些坏的境况,因为境况从来不会因为抱怨的多少而获得改变,能够改变糟糕境况的只有积极的思考和行动。

放下抱怨,因为它是心里最重的东西,又是最无价值的东西。

正如安东尼所说,成功者总是相信凭借自己的力量可以改变所处的环境,而不是抱怨外界。当烦乱的情绪困扰、来袭时,我们应当怎么去做?禅教给我们的态度就是放下抱怨,面对、接受、处理。

放下抱怨,改变自己,因为命运总是垂青那些乐观的人,欣赏他们面对逆境和困难时所表现出来的泰然和勇气。乐观的人具备了生活所必需的信心、勇气和信仰。他们在自己获益的同时,又感染着身边所有的人。跟乐观的人在一起,你也会觉得生活会美好起来,所有的困难和不幸,都会在你的勇气面前藏匿起它们的身影。因此,人不要总是在抱怨中生活。要学会正确地面对生活中的所有不顺心的事,面对生活中的所有困难和挫折。

所以,不管现实怎样,我们都不应该沉溺于一味的消极态度之中,而要放下抱怨,在困境当中保持冷静,在逆境当中勇敢面对,寻找到问题发生的原因所在,然后积极行动把事物向好的方面改变,这才是我们应该学会的,也唯有如此,才能通过我们自己的努力来改变现状并获得我们想要的成功和幸福。

Disturbing thoughts are the cause of awareness, so focus your mind on them with a sense of joy. Your thoughts will only become more prolific if you try to eradicate them, but if you realise they have no enduring essence, there will be no need to abandon them.

— Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo