默然妄语
文|远尘

不妄语戒是佛教五戒的基本戒条之一,也是佛教信徒必须持守的戒条。所谓不妄语,简单的说就是不说假话、大话。其本质是诚实无欺,禁止谎言。那种未见言见,见言不见,虚伪夸张,藉辞掩饰,是妄语最明显的表现。妄语不但欺人,而且自欺,破坏人与人之间的诚信。因此,佛教将不妄语戒作为一个重要的戒条归入五戒之中,要求佛弟子都要遵守。

佛陀无论是在向弟子作开示时,还是带领大众诵戒之时,都十分重视考察弟子对妄语戒的受持程度如何。佛陀认为,不妄语戒的范围很广,除了不亲口说妄语之外,如果一个人虽然口中没说妄语,但他的行为如果违反戒律,或者自己故意不持戒,而在众人面前示现持戒的假象,这种行为也属于妄语,这种妄语,佛陀称之为“默然妄语”。

佛陀提出的默然妄语观点,是佛陀在《法海经》中讲说的。经中说,有一次,佛陀与众弟子游访瞻波国的汉呿利池上。当时正好是月半,按照戒规应当聚众说戒。此时,大众都集中一起,等待佛陀说戒。佛陀此时也坐在法座之上,等了很长时间,佛陀只是默然不语,也不说戒。大众等不下去了,这时侍者阿难,整理好衣服,跪在佛陀跟前对佛说:“初夜已经过去了,中夜将要来临,大众聚集在一起很久了,世尊您尚未感到疲倦,希望能够为大众说戒。”佛陀依然默然不语。大众等了很久,当时有位比丘,名叫阿若都卢,整理好自己的衣服,长跪佛前对佛说:“初夜、中夜已经过去了。群鸡将要晨叫了, 世尊您也将感到疲倦了,众僧都聚集一起等了很久,恳请世尊为大众说戒。”佛陀依然默然不语。阿若都卢比丘隔了很久又对佛陀说:“启明星已经出来了,再不说戒,时间就会过去了。”这时,佛陀才终于开口说:“比丘,因为众僧之中有不持戒之人,因而我才不说戒。”听过佛陀的话后,大目揵连尊者心想:“我应当入定观察,看谁是不持戒之人。”目连于是对佛陀说:“我想入定观察谁是不持戒之人,然后,命令不持戒的人从大众中退出。”佛陀说:“你打算定中观察不持戒者,令他出去,这个办法很好。你现在即可入定观察。”目连随即入定观察,通过观察,照见其中一个弟子犯了重戒。目连便出定,走到犯戒比丘跟前,对这位比丘说:“你为沙门,奉戒为本,戒律就像人的头一样重要。沙门的戒行,应当清白无染,如水如玉。这是世尊的座位,贤圣聚会之处,度化世间众生者聚集之所,清净道德之人所会聚处。此座犹如旃檀之林,你以伊兰臭秽,乱于正道。”目连说着,亲自将这位不持戒的比丘领出戒场。目连边领着不持戒比丘出去边说:“你是被僧团弃舍之人,不能预知如来大众之清净集会说戒,你不能以秽浊之行来参与大众集会说戒。大海不受秽尸,你好好想想,不要污秽贤能之众。秽人自知不受持戒行,他也无法抵赖自己的犯戒,随即从僧团中出去了。”

目连将不持戒比丘逐出僧团之后,回到说戒之所,对大众说:“秽浊之人,已经逐出,在座大众都已经清净,希望世尊现在能为大众说戒。”出乎大众意料的是,佛陀此时依然默然不语。目连感到很奇怪,在大众中四向观察,见到刚才被赶出的那位比丘又回到他刚坐过的座位上了。目连随即呵斥这位比丘说:“你已经是被大众抛弃之人,为何不反躬自省,还以罪秽之身重坐此座。”目连再次驱赶他出去,这位比丘才在众目睽睽之下,起身离开自己的座位走出说戒之所。

逐出不持戒比丘之后,目连再次对佛陀说:“世尊,秽浊之人已经出去,大众都是受持净戒之人,再没有其他不持戒之人在场,祈愿世尊怜念大众,按时说戒,令众僧得修净业。”

佛陀告诉目连:“我从今以后,不再说戒,你们可以自己聚在一起共同说戒。有人在大众之中犯了戒,不反省自己的罪过,还默然不说,又来参加如来说戒。这种行为是默然妄语。默然妄语,头破七分。如来于大众说戒,很不容易。从今以后,你自己说戒。”目连尊者对佛陀说:“弟子闻道,是如来先度化的,而不是弟子自悟成道。如来圣德,厚重天地,言真而要,弟子诵习,得成道果。如来犹天雨,百谷草木,无不仰荣。弟子德浅道小,人不服信。希望世尊能够哀悯大众,使一切人都获得安乐。希望能圆满大众的志向。”目连如是恳请佛陀三四五次,佛陀才告诉目连说:“你为了一切众生,请求如来说戒,如此殷勤乃至四五次。我现在应当为你们说戒。”佛陀于是为大众讲说了僧法八德的含义。

佛陀严禁弟子对人说妄语(为救护众生的急难说方便妄语除外),并将妄语定为佛弟子的必须守持的基本戒条,而且,佛陀还对那些屡次犯戒,不思悔改,还默然不语,制造持戒假象的人深恶痛绝,称这种人的造假行为为默然妄语,将其归于妄语者之列。在某种程度上,默然妄语比一般人的言语妄语更令人生厌。因此,作为佛弟子,不仅要做到口不说妄语,行为上也要远离默然妄语。只有这样,才能在别人面前树立起诚信的形象。

Any path that knows the sufferings, abandons the origin of all sufferings, actualises the cessation and meditates on the paths. In short, has the characteristics of a path.

— Vasubandhu

The Importance of a Focal Point
by Tulku Thondup Rinpoche

Amid our difficulties and struggles, it can be so helpful to have a focal point. We can choose any positive mental image or experience to focus on. I encourage people to think about a peak experience and bring back the feeling from it.

One example from my own life is the spiritual experience I had on a visit to a great teacher. We may find that an obviously inspiring memory springs to mind, or else we could choose from many possibilities, like a wonderful experience in the mountains or at the seashore. Even if we feel so downcast that nothing seems inspiring, we can still find some focal point to help us. Viktor Frankl, the therapist who went through the hell of Auschwitz, was able to find inspiration in the thought of being ‘‘worthy of suffering.’’

A focal point can be like a trusted friend to whom you can turn to whether you are happy or sad. If your mood is dark or even bleak, take some time, even if it is only for a few minutes, for contemplation. Recall the image or experience, as you breathe in a relaxed way. The most important thing is the warm, open, positive feelings that come back. You can apply these feelings to the darkness of sadness, dissolving the negativity like a snowflake in water.

Sentient beings are limitless. Therefore if we cultivate bodhicitta by relying on the understanding that there are limitless sentient beings, our cultivation of bodhicitta becomes limitless too. The authentic cultivation of limitless bodhicitta is accomplished that way.

Then if our cultivation of bodhicitta is limitless, it goes without saying that the benefits would be limitless too. But the problem is that we do not fully understand that sentient beings really are limitless.

We may talk about “all old-mother-like sentient beings who are equal to space”, but nobody seems to fully understand just how vast the universe actually is. And no one seems to know that it is pervaded by sentient beings. Some scientists even say that there are no inhabited worlds except planet earth. But such a perspective is too narrow! It is like only seeing the eye of a needle!

— Yangthang Rinpoche

懂得随缘,你就不苦
梦参老和尚

“不受磨,不成佛”,要在苦难当中成长。对一切乐不贪著,对一切苦不厌离,这才能守护佛的无上法门。

若没有历代大德这么守护,我们现在能学到《华严经》吗?不要认为这是我们的功劳,诸佛菩萨早已创立安排好,我们只是随缘护持一切事业,佛弟子应常时如是观,如是行。

菩萨智慧广大,诸根明利,常乐度众生,勤修福德助道之法。要想成佛得有福德、有智慧,不度众生没的福德,不度众生不会开智慧。菩萨思维种种方便善巧,专利他人,忘掉了自己,无我精神强大,心量广大。

我们不能自由自在,是谁限制你呢?是你的烦恼,你自己的业障,不是外在有谁加给你的。我们经常会说自己业障重,你真的这样想吗?当你要做错事、要生烦恼的时候,如果你能说自己业障重,错事你也就不会做了,善根也就成长了,如果你有这样的思想,你容易入道。

行菩萨道不是一件事两件事,也不是一生两生,是无量生。在时间上无法计量,没有数字可言,常时行菩萨行。修一切白净法,住于白净法,如来智慧当中。

学佛和佛学不一样。现在社会上很多大学都开了一科来研究佛学,探讨三藏十二部经典,这是佛学而非学佛。学佛是学习佛心里所想的,口里所说的和身体所行的,学习清净自己的身口意,这是真正学佛的人。学佛的人,一定会发菩提心,行菩萨道,信心百倍成就佛果,并且把功德都回施供养给一切众生。如果用这种发心指导学佛就对了。反之,无论再怎样通达三藏也只是佛学,也不能称作佛弟子修行人。

业果来了要承担领受,你能认识它,就心无罣碍没有恐怖。好比欠人家债,现在人家来收,你把债还完了多轻松。业果来了要承当,过去了就要放下。有些道友业果来時不想承担,过去了又放不下,那就苦上加苦不能解脱。

咱们念经之前要修四加行,慈悲喜舍四摄法,念的时候应作观想:“大慈大悲大喜大舍救济一切众生”。说我没有力量,那你介绍四大菩萨十方诸佛,学华严经的,你把华严力给他加持一下。不要认为这是假的,这里头含着不可思议的力量,这叫加持力。你能保持善用其心,念念不忘三宝,不忘失菩提心,“魔事”自消。

供僧如供佛,你能至诚恳切恭敬,以清净心供养三宝,完全没有分别,没一点杂念,这个福德就大。反之有数量、有计较的,福德就小。

菩萨度众生无有一定之规,我们凡夫看见菩萨示现“逆行”的时候,你虽不能理解也千万莫看成过失去毁谤,因为你看见的不一定是真实。为什么?你看见的是现象,不是本质。菩萨本体犹如虚空他为了救度众生,才会随缘示现“逆行”。

我们常常疑惑自己所学的法不够,了解的不够透彻。念一部经嫌少,念两部经有时候又嫌太长。往往追求越大越圆满的法,至于受灌顶也是要受大圆满的灌顶。这是贪心,一味想多累积功德。其实大家缺乏的是实际的行动力,没有一件一件地把我们所知道的去实行;不去实行,我们就不能证得,不能证得,我们等于没有得到法的真实利益。

想调伏无量劫的烦恼,我们要以“善”止“恶”。用善念来对治恶念,让恶念不生,善念多生,这样才能真正调伏和转变。

“安稳”,什么是安稳?得佛的真实法就叫安稳。了生死的、不受生灭所牵动的,这叫安稳。听经、拜忏、读诵大乘,你所做的事,都是安稳的。你一天心里所想的、身体所做的,没有六尘的染污,六根清净,漸漸的与如来的清净智慧相应。

个人有多大智慧,你就得多大的解脱;没有智慧,你就束缚。谁束缚你?你自己束缚自己,你会自己找些绳索给自己带上,那是你自己的事儿。佛教导我们的法,都是帮助我们解脱的。所以戒律不是束缚,戒是把那些扰乱,障碍你道业的染缘都遣除去,你自然就清净,解脱,最终成就圣道。

常行善法,于后不悔,所做善业经常增长。行善是好事,但莫要后悔,例如有人在财富盈满时行布施,等他受到困难时便后悔了,觉得自己当初不该布施那么多,或於布施之后即悔,这都叫善业悔。行善业不应后悔!

我经常劝道友,例如说打斋供众,他很大财富,叫别人替他去做,而他却没当一回事,没有恭敬供养心,那所得福报就很少。如果他亲自去做,无论供养谁,都很恭敬,平等对待,那他就能多生受福。供养时无分別无爱著、希求,才叫清净。

Gross conceptions are easy to recognise because they are so gross, and consequently they do not create such an obstacle. Politicians, especially very high-level politicians, often look like siddhas, realised men. They have a very austere demeanour and do not speak much. They consider everything carefully; and what they do say, they say precisely. They maintain an inscrutable and enigmatic pose, and one can never divine their feelings. They can seem peaceful and happy no matter how bad the circumstances, and can be extremely angry about something but still appear unruffled. By contrast, a good number of siddhas have no cares for anything in the world, yet are quite openly obstreperous.

There are also Dharma politicians, and some of them may also look as if they have a high level of realisation. They speak softly, conduct themselves well, and are very careful and considerate. They always look as if they are happy. In the case of both ordinary politicians and Dharma politicians, their outer appearance does not correspond at all to their real state of mind. There are many subtle and deep flaws in their minds, which do not receive any outward expression. People who are politically active have to be careful not to insult or denigrate others openly. Nevertheless, they often do so unintentionally. When a politician is praising somebody, one can often see that his praise is actually an insult. This occurs even in Dharma politics. Members of one sect will never disparage another sect, but the tone of their praise will show what they are really thinking. In the same way, gross conceptions are very easy to apprehend in meditation and one can understand them right away, but subtle conceptions are much more difficult to apprehend.

— Thinley Norbu Rinpoche

The Ocean of Boundless Compassion
by Mark Unno

I remember as a small child the experience of my first pet. Our family had travelled to Japan because my father’s study had taken us there. We rented an old, traditional wooden house in Tokyo where year round the wind whistled easily past windows and doors that never quite shut completely. I desperately wanted a pet dog, but my parents said that we would have to wait until we returned to the United States. One day, however, they said I could have another kind of pet. We went down to the local outdoor bazaar, and they bought a pet for me; it was a grasshopper in a small bamboo cage. It didn’t quite have the feel of the dog I had imagined.

When we got home, my parents showed me how to care for it by feeding it fruits and vegetables. It especially seemed to like cucumbers and watermelon; I was hooked. My mother was studying ikebana, Japanese art of flower arrangement, and one day, we took the grasshopper out of its cage and put it on the flower blossom of one of her trial arrangements. The grasshopper took to eating the blossom, and it seemed so content that after awhile, when we left the house, we simply left the grasshopper munching on the flower. Thereafter, every time we went out, we left the grasshopper on the flower arrangement. Even though it could easily have escaped, it never even tried. When our little grasshopper died, I cried.

In the Shin Buddhist path, the emphasis is on the Buddha’s compassion for all sentient beings. As human beings, our ability to convey compassion to other people and creatures comes to us through the cosmic compassion of Amida Buddha. Yet, Amida Buddha is not viewed as being separate from us; rather, Amida Buddha, as boundless compassion, is our deepest, truest nature. For Shin Buddhists, nature and the universe are filled with boundless compassion.

Compassion means literally “to feel with.” Our family’s sense of feeling attuned to the life of the grasshopper came to us from the creature itself and from our own hearts, but more accurately from the deepest reality of oneness that we call Amida Buddha. However, in our foolish attachments, we tend to forget our true nature. For this reason, in Shin Buddhism we are called foolish beings filled with blind passions.

It may be beautiful to think of a small child feeling in tune with the rhythms of a grasshopper’s life. Yet, I did not have the same feeling when a mosquito bit me, or a dog barked at me. Thus, my own sense of compassion is limited, inconsistent. Nevertheless, the deep feeling of oneness, the reality of boundless compassion is always there, if only I would awaken to it. When I become impatient or irritated with someone or something, if I can be reminded that this is due to my own blind ego-attachment, then I may become gradually less impatient, more embracing. In this way, the ever-present compassion of life itself, of Amida Buddha, my own nature, breaks through my ego-self into the realisation of boundless compassion.

Here in the Pacific Northwest, rain is plentiful. Thousands, millions, billions of raindrops fall from the sky every year. Just like snowflakes, however, no two raindrops are alike. Large or small, warmer or colder, liquid sunshine or refractions of a wintry gray, each takes a journey unique unto its own. Then, as they fall into the great Pacific Ocean, they all become as one, each giving itself to the Ocean of Compassion.

Each of us rises up with life, like water seeking to escape the salty seas of samsara, forgetting that liberation rests not in escape but in immersing ourselves in the very depths of suffering. Illuminated by the limitless warmth of the sun, we are reminded to return to our own true nature, in the ocean of samsara.

The clouds of ignorance release the sweet rain that descends, filling the ocean. The salty seas of samsara are transformed into the warm waters of boundless compassion. Each of us, these unique raindrops filled with blind passion, just as we are, enters and becomes the Ocean of Compassion. Rising and falling, rising and falling, we take this journey, over and over, forever and ever.

All beings are one with me, and I am led to become one with all beings. Illuminated, touched, embraced, and dissolved into the great Ocean of Compassion. I, this foolish being, entrust myself to Amida Buddha, my deepest, truest reality. Namu Amida Butsu.

This itself is the whole of the journey, opening your heart to that which is lovely. Because of their feeling for the lovely, beings who are afraid of birth and death, aging and decaying, are freed from their fear. This is the way you must train yourself: I will become a friend and an intimate of the lovely. To do this I must closely observe and embrace all states of mind that are good.

— The Buddha, Samyutta Nikaya

四諦
懺雲老法師

假如沒有風吹,海面上也不起波,平平靜靜
心海寧靜,和天一樣,天水一色,這就是滅

苦諦:第一苦諦。眾生在娑婆世界,就是生生死死。要是眾生沒有苦,尤其沒有生死苦,佛不出現於世。

比方說,有些神通、以至於沒有死的,在街上遇到了,相互問︰「你貴姓啊?」對方答︰「我姓殷,是商朝的後人。」或「我是唐太宗時代的人,你呢?」「我是宋太祖時代的人。」就這麼三代、漢唐宋元明清的人,都不死,都在街上來回走,那麼佛不出現於世。以至於人都不生病,都市的病院沒有、殯儀館也沒有、連棺材店都沒有,四肢五體車禍也撞不死,撞完了,拍拍泥巴又可以走了。家親眷屬之間,也沒有生離死別。

人生沒有這些苦,佛不出現於世。因為有這些苦,還要生生世世都受這些苦的煎熬,佛才出現於世。所以佛講苦集滅道四諦,第一先講苦。

道諦:「道」就是戒定慧。戒定慧是藥,惑業苦是病。惑業是病因,苦是病的果。道諦戒定慧是藥,藥到病除︰有戒定慧,不起惑造業,就不受苦。我們可以拜佛,或是將惡業轉成善業,依善業懺悔惡業;將染業轉成淨業,以淨業懺悔染業,這都是戒定慧。

道諦呢,再是八正道,或是三十七道品。戒定慧三學,譬如說八關齋戒,或是種種佛法我們體會依著去做,那些熱鬧場、跳舞場、夜總會、卡拉OK餐廳種種不相當的地方,我們不去,社會上許多打殺的事件多從那兒起的。

以至於晚間,我們多在宿舍看書用功,和同學談談佛法,以至於修行,念佛、持咒、修學佛法,都好,避免出去,尤其到那些花花場中,這屬於戒。我們戒除迷惑的心理、顛倒的行為,或是痛苦的遭遇,沒有這些惑業苦。這總說是道諦下的戒。

再念佛修定、做觀,止觀雙運,修定慧。慧就要看開,觀的分明,世間華燈初上,那些熱鬧,就像貓捉老鼠,並不好。老鼠不好吃,貓以為好吃。又像雞用嘴叼蜈蚣、蚯蚓種種蟲子,再是狗吃小孩拉的屎。現在一般都用衛生器了,三十年前那有衛生器?有時候小孩在街上拉屎,狗過去咬著就吃。再就像豬,豬都是在混水塘裡頭,豬感覺這個最好、最香。以至於豬看豬感覺曲線美,狗看狗也是感覺世界第一美狗;相比之下,人也是,都是顛倒。這就需要慧觀,要是能析空觀、體空觀,觀夢幻泡影也好,馬上沒有這些,心無罣礙,無罣礙故,無有恐怖,遠離顛倒夢想,究竟涅槃。析空觀也好、體空觀也好,都需要。觀就是慧。

滅諦:懺悔惑業苦,戒定慧是藥,惑業苦是病因、病果,藥到病除,都沒有了,就是「滅」,「生滅既滅、寂滅現前」,所有一切的痛苦、一切迷惑的心理都滅了,生滅既滅、寂滅現前。就像平靜的大海,有風就起浪;業障的風、迷惑的風,不吹心海、不造業,風平浪靜、水天一色的時候,千江有水千江月,那是滅諦的意思。海上的波–心海上的惑業;波有起有落,心有生有滅。假如沒有風吹,海面上也不起波,平平靜靜,心海寧靜,和天一樣,天水一色,這就是滅。滅諦並不是「沒有了」的滅,而是「煩惱生滅心滅、寂滅的心理現前」那種滅,皓月當空,好﹗

一切佛法的內容,總攝起來不離開四諦的道理。而四諦也不離開這念心。苦集二諦是染汙心,所成就世間的因果;滅道二諦是清淨心,所開顯出世間的因果。知道這原理,便能將所學的法義都往心上會,也就處處能以教照心,這樣的生命才是有意義的。

From the point of view of those who understand the workings of karma, everything that happens to you — the stuff you like as well as the stuff you hate — is the inevitable result of your own actions, maybe in this life, maybe in previous lives. But the point of seeing that isn’t to try to figure out if your eczema is payback for that slave you mistreated back when you were Cleopatra (even if that is indeed the reason). The point is rather that, understanding this to be the case, you learn to cultivate the compassionate mind states that lead toward happiness starting right now.

— Venerable Thubten Chodron