The false views entertain by beings in the world are without number, but they can be summarised as being of four kinds: those of the unreflective, the materialists, the nihilistic extremists, and the eternalistic extremists.

The unreflective have no understanding as to whether or not phenomena are the causes or results of anything. They are completely confused.

The materialists have no understanding as to whether or not there are previous and future lives. They work to achieve strength, riches, and power in this one life, for which they rely on the secret knowledge of worldly beings.

Nihilistic extremists do not believe that things have causes and effects. For them, everything that comes about in this one life does so “just like that” and finally is extinguished.

Eternalistic extremists believe in a permanent self, which they imagine to be present in all phenomena. Some believe in a reality – an effect – for which there is no cause. Some have an incorrect view of causality. Some believe that whereas the cause is real, the effects are unreal.

All these are the views of ignorance.

— Padmasambhava, Guru Rinpoche

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