Oral Instructions on the Practice of Guru Yoga (Part 4)
by Chogye Trichen Rinpoche


It is said in the teachings that during the day you can visualise the Guru above the crown of your head, and at night in your heart. During the day, visualise your Guru seated in a lotus above the crown of your head. At night time when going to sleep, you can visualise that the Guru above your crown dissolves into you and remains in a sphere of light within your heart. This is a practice one may apply at the time of going to sleep, and then sleep with the Guru in your heart.

Through this practice, you will receive blessings, and your practice of sustaining the View (tawa kyongwa; Ita ba skyong ba) will improve. Through relying on the blessing lineage (jinlab gyu; byin rlabs brgyud) you will be led to the practice of sustaining the View.

The key point is to dissolve the Guru into our heart, and then truly merge our mind with the mind of the Guru, remaining in the View of the nature of mind that the Guru has introduced. Throughout the day and night, every time the Guru has dissolved into our heart, we rest in that and recognise the empty nature of this experience. Within that state of blessing, we are able to experience emptiness.

We must allow ourselves to continue in this experience of emptiness that has come about through the Guru’s blessing. At some point, clear luminosity (osal) and self-knowing awareness (rang gi rigpa) will arise within that experience of emptiness; we have only to recognise it. If we practice this as much as possible, the practice will purify many sins and obscurations (dig drib), and we will definitely gain a lot of blessings from doing so. The key point is that as the mind rests in emptiness, the Guru’s blessings are received more effectively. It is the experience of emptiness that allows us to properly receive the Guru’s blessings and for them to remain within us. Through receiving blessings, we gather the accumulation of merit (sonam kyi tsog). Through resting in emptiness, we gather the accumulation of wisdom (yeshe kyi tsog).

In Guru Yoga practice, we visualise the Guru in front of us in the appearance of our master. He symbolises the Guru. However, the ultimate Guru (don gyi lama) is one’s own awareness wisdom (rang rigpa’i yeshe), the primordial wisdom (yeshe) of selfknowing awareness (rang gi rigpa).


Under ordinary circumstances, it is not necessary to speak of the View very directly, and so generally, in many texts and teachings, indirect explanations are given. When a master gives empowerment to a large group, he may often give only a general, brief explanation of the View of the four empowerments.

If the meaning is explained clearly, one can gain an experiential understanding of one’s own awareness (rang gi ri pa’i nyam myong). Without this experience of awareness, our practice of emptiness would be blank like physical space, which knows nothing.

The real meaning of self-knowing primordial wisdom (rang rigpai yeshe) cannot be grasped intellectually. It is through receiving blessings and the Guru’s oral instructions (men ngag), which must be put into practice, that we will be able to recognise the true nature of mind. While scholarly texts are helpful in gaining a general idea about the true nature of mind, the nature of mind is inexpressible (jod may; brjod du med pa). The nature of mind can only be experienced for oneself, through one’s own practice. Study leads to meditation practice, and practice leads to genuine experience of the meaning of the View.

These teachings belong to the practice lineage (drub gyu; sgrub brgyud), to the lineage of experiential realisation (thugdam nyam zhay kyi gyupa; thugs dam nyams bzhes kyi brgyud pa). This must be so, as the true nature of mind is free of all elaborations and intellectual constructs (tro drel; spros bral). In other words, it is to be experienced for oneself in the thought-free state (tog may ngang; rtog med ngang).

Awareness (rigpa) can only be understood through receiving the Guru’s introduction and then practicing according to this introduction. If one practices well, blessings are received. Through blessings and applying the Guru’s oral instructions regarding the true nature of mind, one is able to recognise awareness (rigpa) and sustain the View (tawa kyong; lta ba skyong).

Some masters may introduce the disciples to the nature of mind by any variety of means. They may introduce them through the gaze of their eyes or through gestures. A loud sound such as thunder which startles everyone may be skillfully used by the master as an occasion to introduce the nature of mind. Once the thought-free state arises, the master instructs the disciples to remain in that state.

For those who are able to remain in the thoughtfree state, the introduction to awareness may be given. The master tells us that while the mind is empty, self-knowing awareness (rang gi rigpa) is present within this experience of emptiness.

Just as we are at first able to recognise emptiness, so our own awareness (rang gi rigpa) is also able to recognise itself within the state of emptiness.

The true nature of mind is difficult to express in words or to truly illustrate by examples. This is because it is very subtle. Still, by necessity, the nature of mind is often introduced symbolically. There are many examples used in the teachings, but these are only indications to point out what is to be recognised.

For instance, it is said that awareness (rigpa) is like a vajra or diamond, meaning that it has the power to cut through anything. Awareness can cut through thoughts, just as a diamond can cut through anything, yet it cannot be broken by anything. In the same way, awareness cannot be broken, harmed, or disturbed by thoughts.

Another example is that the nature of mind is said to be like the middle of space. While it is empty like space, it is not a blank, unknowing emptiness. The true nature of mind has the aspect of clarity (sal cha), so there is the quality of empty knowing (sal tong), unlike physical space, which does not know anything. Awareness is said to be like the middle of space, because it cannot be pinpointed.

When you try to pin down the nature of mind, it disappears; it cannot be located anywhere. To realise this, endeavor in the practice of searching for the mind, trying to discover if there is anywhere the mind arises from, anywhere it abides, or anywhere it goes to or ceases to be.

The true nature of mind is also said to be like an echo in space. Although it cannot be located, it can be recognised. The example of space (namkha) is one of the best for introducing Dharmata, the true nature of phenomena. At first, our recognition will not be vast like space. This is something that happens naturally as we learn to let go of grasping and fixation (dzinba; ‘dzin ba), which tie down and narrow our experience of the View.

To point out the nature of mind, I especially like to use the short words of Sakya Pandita:

In between two thoughts,
An unbroken continuity
Of clear luminosity.

When the last thought has passed, but the next thought has not yet arisen, there is a gap, a thought free state (tog may ngang). While this state is free of thought, it is not a blank, unknowing state. There is a knowing aspect (sal cha) that experiences everything. When this is recognised in the thoughtfree state, it is in reality an unbroken continuity of clear luminosity (osal gyun mi chay pa).

Once recognised, this continuity of clear luminosity is quickly lost to us, although it always remains. It is lost as we again fall out of the thoughtfree state and become involved in thinking. So we must apply the meaning of Sakya Pandita’s words again and again. We return to the state between two thoughts, recognising the empty essence (ngowo tongpa) of our mind. This thought-free state must be entered without any grasping or clinging to the experience of emptiness.

The quality of empty knowing without grasping (gsal stong ‘dzin med), that remains within the thought-free state, needs only to be recognised. Now we must remain with this recognition, and not allow ourselves to be distracted by thoughts. When we have become distracted, we again apply the meaning of Sakya Pandita’s words. Whatever thought or feeling arises, we must again look into our mind and recognise emptiness. The thought vanishes in the recognition of emptiness.

This is a key point of continuing in the practice. This is how we can learn to recognise and begin the practice of sustaining the View (tawa kyongwa; Ita ba skyong ba). This is the meaning of the practice of View according to the Sakya tradition. It is also the meaning of the Great Perfection (dzogpa chenpo), and of the Great Seal (mahamudra; chaggya chenpo).

The practice of sustaining the View requires a special kind of diligence. In the beginning, our recognition of emptiness does not last very long, because we are quickly distracted and become involved in dualistic thinking (namtog). If we do not notice this, we will not return to the View. So, we need diligence in attentive presence (dren shay; dran shes). Without this special kind of diligence, the View will not be sustained.

Attentive presence is a combination of mindfulness (drenpa) and watchfulness (sheszhin). Mindfulness (drenpa) means to remember the essence of our mind (rang gi sem ngowo), which is emptiness (tongpa nyi). In addition to remembering to recognise emptiness, the clarity aspect of our mind (sal cha; gsal cha) also continues to function by knowing what is going on around us and within our mind.

As a function of our clarity, watchfulness (sheszhin) notices what is taking place, and so notices when we are distracted (nam par yengwa; rnam par gyeng ba) or have become involved in thoughts (namtog). Then, once we have noticed that we have lost mindfulness of the essence, once again, mindfulness (drenpa) returns us to the essence of our mind (sem gyi ngowo).

Now we can understand the meaning of the quality of attentive presence (dren shay) necessary for sustaining the View. It is the key point in which to be diligent in our practice of sustaining the continuity of the View (tawa gyun kyong; Ita ba rgyun skyong).

To return to the gap between thoughts, the empty essence of our mind (sem gyi ngowo tongpa), is the aspect of calm abiding (shamatha; shineh). To recognise the clear luminosity (osal), which has the quality of thought-free, empty knowing without grasping (sal tong dzin may; gsal stong ‘dzin med), is the aspect of clear insight (vipasyana; lhag tong).

Many people like to receive blessing medicine (mendrup), and receive blessings through eating these substances. Blessing medicine is very important, but that is only the outer blessing medicine, which helps them to complete the accumulation of merit (sonam kyi tsog). The real blessing medicine is one’s own awareness wisdom (rang rigpai yeshe). Awareness is what we need to recognise, in order to also complete the accumulation of wisdom (yeshe kyi tsog).

During empowerment, if you have faith, you can receive blessings and recognise the true nature of mind. Even if the master is an ordinary person, if you receive the empowerment with faith, the blessings of the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and lineage masters will reach you, and you will be able to gain an experience of the nature of mind. The experience of the nature of mind that comes through blessings is called the descent of primordial wisdom (yeshe bab). It is something that may also be repeated continually throughout one’s own practice of receiving the empowerments during the practice of Guru Yoga.

When our own practice is joined with the blessings we receive, this will give us good reason to have respect and reverence, gratitude and devotion toward the Guru. Once we recognise the View revealed by the Guru, we will experience for ourselves his great kindness in lifting the veils of confusion and delusion, the source of our afflictions.

I was very fortunate to receive many introductions to the true nature of mind from my own Gurus. I received these teachings extensively from Dampa Rinpoche Zhenpen Nyingpo and Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi Lodro, as well as from my other Gurus. When I think of their kindness, my eyes immediately fill with tears. I cannot help but feel the deepest gratitude, faith, and devotion toward them. Through their kindness, I received their ultimate teachings and the blessings of their ultimate lineage (don gyudpa).

When we recognise empty awareness (rig tong), we have seen our Buddha nature (sugatagarbha; desheg nyingpo) for ourselves. We have not realised Buddhahood, but we have definitely discovered our Buddha nature. If we trust the Guru and can trust in the wisdom he has pointed out, we will quickly gain confidence in the recognition of this wisdom. Our View will begin to stabilise, and realisation will be born in our mind.

Practicing Guru Yoga, one must merge the visualisation of the master with one’s own mind. One’s own mind will merge completely with his (thug yid yermey du drepa; thugs yid dbyer med du ‘dres pa), so that the Guru and one’s empty awareness (rig tong) become inseparable (yermey; dbyer med).

When the Guru and one’s own awareness rest inseparably, this is what is known as ultimate Guru Yoga (don gyi lamai naljor). Just let be, resting naturally in the state where the Guru and one’s own mind are indivisible. Just as one cannot separate water from wetness, for they are always together, in the same way one rests in unity with the Guru, one’s mind inseparable from the mind of the Guru.


In the Buddhist traditions, lineage is very important. If there is no lineage, there is no way to receive blessings. The most important point in the beginning is to check whether a tradition has real lineages or not. A real lineage has been proven through experience. Many have attained realisation through practicing its teachings. The Tsarpa tradition (tsar lug) originates with Dagchen Lodro Gyaltsen, of the Sakya Khön family. He was a great holder of the three vows (dom sum), and so inspired faith in Doringpa, who received the three vows from Dagchen Lodro Gyaltsen and became his main disciple. Doringpa’s main disciple was Tsarchen Losal Gyatso, who realised the meaning of the practices of the Sakya tradition through his own experience.

For example, we may consider the blessings of the Vajrayogini lineage of practice. In Tsarchen’s lineage prayer of Vajrayogini, the verses describing the stages of meditation on the path are all Tsarchen’s words, depicting his own experience of the complete path. He realised every stage of the practice, and his lineage prayer describes his meetings with the real Vajrayogini.

Khyenrab Choje was the first holder of the throne of the Chogye Trichen who came from my family, the Chetsun clan. From the time of Khyenrab Choje, I am now the eighteenth Chogye Trichen of Nalendra from the Chetsun family bone lineage.

Khyenrab Choje beheld the pure vision of Vajrayogini on several occasions. Once, he had a vision of a red and a white Vajrayogini appearing above the cliffs of Drak Yewa near Lhasa. The two Vajrayoginis bestowed the Kalachakra empowerment on Khyenrab Choje, and he brought back translucent Kusha grass that sparkled with rainbow light, as proof that he had received the empowerment from Vajrayogini herself.

Chogye Trichen Khyenrab Choje received prophecies that he would attain the body of rainbow light if he went to the holy mountain of Tsari and remained in retreat there. He was, however, unable to go there at that time, due to his responsibilities at Nalendra and Zhalu monasteries. But later, after receiving the Kalachakra empowerment, blessings, and teachings from Vajrayogini, he did indeed attain the body of rainbow light (jalu; ‘ja’ lus).

When Khyenrab Choje informed his attendant of his accomplishment, his attendant asked him, “What is the body of light?” (od ku; ‘od sku), Khyenrab Choje said, “Here, touch my head.” Khyenrab Choje’s attendant touched his hand to the master’s head, but his hand passed downward right through Khyenrab Choje’s whole body which, though appearing, was nothing but transparent light. This was the sign by which Khyenrab Choje revealed his accomplishment of the rainbow body. Khyenrab Choje is one of the most important masters of the Vajrayogini tradition of the Tsarpa.

We have the unbroken lineage of these teachings, down to our present Guru. The lineage represented by such masters who actually met Vajrayogini and received her teachings has continued down to the present time. In recent times, the master who continued this tradition was Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. He met Vajrayogini in actuality and received the short lineage (nye brgyud), the direct transmission of the pure vision (dag nang) of Vajrayogini. Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo was extraordinary, a most exceptional master, one of the greatest masters to ever appear in Tibet.

Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo is so highly regarded that he is known in Tibet as a “second Buddha”. In our times, the root of the Sakya tradition of Vajrayogini is Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo.

If we are to speak about the lineage of blessings (jinlab kyi gyupa; byin rlabs kyi brgyud pa) of the Vajrayogini teachings, we can say that it is a lineage of practical experience (nyamlen kyi gyupa; nyams len kyi brgyud pa), because it is an unbroken lineage that has been proven through experience.

It is a lineage of experiential realisation (thugdam nyam zhay kyi gyupa; thugs dam nyams bzhes kyi brgyud pa), since masters such as Dagchen Lodro Gyaltsen have realised the teaching for themselves. It is a visionary lineage of whispered instructions (zhal tong nyengyu kyi gyupa; zhal mthong snyan brgyud kyi rgyud pa), since Drakpa Gyaltsen and many masters since his time have beheld the face (zhal mthong) of Vajrayogini.

It is a lineage of the View (tawa kyi gyupa; Ita ba kyi brgyud pa), because it contains the blessing (jinlab), the practice manual (triyig; khrid yig), and the oral instructions (men ngag) of Directly Showing Dharmata (chonyi ngoton; chos nyid dngos su ston pa), the teachings on the ultimate View (tawa tar tug; lta ba mthar thug).

When there are devoted disciples, whose relationship to the Guru is like a child to their father, and who keep the Samaya commitments well, it is permitted for the master to teach the ultimate meaning (don dam), such as oral instructions on Directly Showing Dharmata.


My root Guru, Dampa Rinpoche was a disciple and lineage holder of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Jamgon Kongtrul Yonten Gyatso, and Jamgon Loter Wangpo. All three of the masters transmitted to him the ultimate blessing lineage (don gyu), the teachings on recognising and sustaining the View. These are the blessings and teachings I have received from Dampa Rinpoche, which is why I say we are all very fortunate.

Dampa Rinpoche was really incredible. He was called “Dampa” because he was a sublime being (kyewo dampa; skye bo dam pa). Whenever he received any teaching, he immediately read it fifty times. In every way, it was difficult to compare anyone to him. This is why he was called “Dampa”, meaning “sublime” or simply, “the best”.

I feel that he was equal to his own Gurus, that he had the same qualities as Khyentse Wangpo, Jamgon Kongtrul, and Loter Wangpo. From Khyentse Wangpo, to Dampa Rinpoche, to our present teacher, is a very near, close transmission (nye brgyud). As I mentioned earlier, if we ask, “What is the root of our tradition of Vajrayogini in these times?” we must answer that the root is Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo.

My other root Guru, Zimog Rinpoche, gave a lot of blessings to many different people, and often introduced people to the nature of mind briefly while giving blessings. But he was more of a hidden master and did not openly explain the View so clearly to many people. I did, however privately receive a great deal of introduction and instruction from Zimog Rinpoche. From Dampa Rinpoche, I received very detailed teachings on how to recognise awareness and sustain the View. Dampa Rinpoche was very well learned in the whispered lineage (nyen gyu), and he taught me these things in depth.

Often, Zimog Rinpoche might not give detailed explanations, but would bestow blessings on the disciples and introduce the nature of mind with some words of blessing, together with his gaze and his gestures, all the while remaining in the View. Zimog Rinpoche especially liked to introduce through the short words of Sakya Pandita mentioned above.

Zimog Rinpoche would often bestow blessings on the disciples, and he would then explain, “When the last thought has ceased, and the next thought has not yet arisen, there is an unbroken continuity of clear luminosity (osal). In the gap where there are no thoughts, this clear luminosity is your own awareness wisdom (rang rigpai yeshe). It is the Inseparability of Samsara and Nirvana. This is what you must now recognise for yourself.” His words would often be very short and precise, yet complete, just like this. They were very effective for introducing disciples to the true nature of mind.

From Zimog Rinpoche, I received the entire lineage of the Collection of Sadhanas (drub thab kun tu). This was a very special lineage of the Collection of Sadhanas that he received from the female Siddha master Jetsun Pema. Jetsun Pema received the Collection of Sadhanas from Jamgon Loter Wangpo, who was the compiler of this collection of teachings gathered by his Guru Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo.

The supreme teacher Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo was the first of the line of Khyentses of recent times who subsequently appeared as emanations of Khyentse Wangpo. The first direct rebirth was Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi Lodro. The degree of attainment by the early Khyentses was inconceivable. Following Khyentse Chokyi Lodro, there were five different emanations of Khyentse Rinpoche.

I also received the teachings of the ultimate lineage (don gyud), which emphasise the introduction to the true nature of mind, from Jamyang Khyentse Chokyi Lodro. I was very fortunate to receive the Dzogchen teachings from Khyentse Chokyi Lodro on two separate occasions. Twice during my time in Tibet, Khyentse Chokyi Lodro came to Central Tibet to teach, and both times I received these teachings.

In response to a request I made, Khyentse Chokyi Lodro bestowed upon me privately both empowerment and instruction in a lineage very close to my family, the teachings of Chetsun Senge Wangchuk, the Chetsun Nyingthig. Khyentse Chokyi Lodro said that he would give me a very special teaching of Chetsun Nyingthig since I was the holder of the bone lineage of Chetsun Senge Wangchuk.

Chetsun Nyingthig is one of the mind treasures of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (khyentse gong ter). During Khyentse Chokyi Lodro’s teachings in Lhasa, I also received the other mind treasures of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, and the Nyingthig Yabzhi. In addition, I received privately very precious whispered lineages (nyen gyu; snyan rgyud) of the Vajrayogini and Hevajra traditions from Khyentse Chokyi Lodro.

I also specially requested teachings on the nature of mind (sem tri) from the great female master, Shugsep Jetsunma. Like Dampa Rinpoche, she too was the disciple of Khyentse Wangpo, Jamgon Kongtrul, Jamgon Loter Wangpo, and many other great masters. Again, from those masters, to Shugseb Jetsunma, to myself, this is a very short transmission. It is a very near lineage that reaches to Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and his contemporaries.

When I requested the teachings from Shugseb Jetsunma, I felt that I had already received very well the ultimate lineage (don gyu) from Dampa Rinpoche. Yet, I found that my practice of the View was benefited and enhanced by her teachings. Shugseb Jetsunma must have lived to be over one hundred thirty years old. She stayed more than twenty or thirty years in retreat in total darkness (mun tshams). Although it was pitch black darkness in her retreat, she could see clearly, read her books, and carry out all of her activities, as well as behold pure visions of luminosity (osal).

The previous Trulshig Rinpoche, Trulshig Zhude Rinpoche was a teacher of Shugseb Jetsunma, as well as a teacher of my Guru, Lama Ngaglo Rinpoche, of Nalendra monastery. Both Shugseb Jetsunma and Lama Ngaglo were great practitioners of the Dzogchen tradition of Black Quintessence (yangti nagpo), which they received from Trulshig Zhude Rinpoche. Yangti Nagpo is a visionary practice of the hundred peaceful and wrathful deities (zhi tro lha; zhi khro lha), which is practiced in dark retreat (mun; tshams).

When I was young, my Guru Lama Ngaglo trained me in these practices at Nalendra, placing me in dark retreat. Some of the old monks went around Nalendra monastery complaining, saying, “Oh, this Lama Ngaglo is doing something wrong. He is confining our master in a dark room. How can he do such a thing?” In particular, there was an old monk who was in charge of the small temple where our large prayer wheel (mani khorlo) was located. He complained to everyone that Lama Ngaglo should not treat our lama so harshly! Still, the practice was very beneficial.

I spent a few weeks in the dark retreat guided by Lama Ngaglo. I was able to gain the visions of both samsara and nirvana, and saw the realms of samsara, right down to the lower realms and hell realms. And yet, even the hell realms were totally pervaded by the pure realms of the mandalas of the hundred peaceful and wrathful deities.

I also received many introductions to the essence of awareness (rigpa rang ngo tro; rigpa rang ngo sprod) from Lama Ngaglo Rinpoche, of Nalendra monastery. Lama Ngaglo’s father was a Tulku of the Taklung Kagyu tradition, and his mother was a nun of my family, the Chetsun clan. From the time I was very young, Lama Ngaglo taught me all of the Buddhist teachings, both sutra and tantra.

Lama Ngaglo taught me how to perform all of the practices and methods of the Sakya tradition. He also taught me the practices and oral instructions of many other lineages of practice (drub gyu). Lama Ngaglo was very diligent in receiving the teachings of a great many Buddhist traditions, and he also passed all of these to His Holiness Sakya Trizin.

I received the same kind of education and training from Dampa Rinpoche. He bestowed upon me, over a period of several years, the entire Collection of Tantras (gyude kuntu), which represents all the Eight Great Chariots of the Practice Lineage (drub gyu shingta gye; sgrub brgyud shing rta brgyad). The Collection of Tantras contains the complete empowerments of the eight schools of Buddhism that flourished in Tibet: the Nyingma, Kadam, Sakya, Marpa Kagyu, Shangpa Kagyu, Kalachakra Jordrug, Nyendrub, Shije and Chöd.

From Dampa Rinpoche, I received all these empowerments, together with the oral instructions (men ngag) and whispered lineages (nyen gyu) that explain the practices of View, Meditation, and Conduct practices for all eight chariots of the practice lineage. I have passed all of these to His Holiness Sakya Trizin, and to many other lineage holders.

Among these traditions that I received from Dampa Rinpoche, I have offered, for example, the complete transmissions together with the oral instructions (men ngag) for the Six-Branched Yoga (jordruk; sbyor drug) of Kalachakra on numerous occasions, teaching the completion stage in detail.

I have continuously been giving empowerments and transmissions of the teachings contained in The Collection of Tantras and The Collection of Sadhanas throughout my life. These collections include the empowerments (wang; dbang), sadhanas (drub thab; sgrub thabs), and oral instructions (men ngag) for the Eight Great Chariots of the Practice Lineage.

The Tsarpa tradition follows the Sakya practices of Hevajra, Vajrayogini, Mahakala, and so on, practicing the two stages of creation (kyerim) and completion (dzogrim), together with all of the oral instructions that come with those practices. At the same time, the Tsarpa yogis have always been able to enrich and enhance their understanding of their practice through the oral instructions (men ngag) of all eight chariots of the practice lineage.

This is the real meaning of the Tsarpa tradition (tshar lugs), which is rich in the oral instructions of all eight chariots of practice. This has always been the case with the practice lineage (drub gyu; sgrub brgyud) of the Tsarpa tradition from its beginning, from the original masters Dagchen Lodro Gyaltsen of the Sakya Khön family, to Doringpa, to Tsarchen and his main disciple Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk. If anyone wonders about this, let them simply read the biographies of these masters.


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