Don’t take outer appearances inside! Don’t project inner conceptions outside! Don’t enslave body to mind! Don’t occupy mind with body! Don’t attend to view or meditation! Leave mind unfabricated, just where it is!

— Mahasiddha Padampa Sangye

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论转识成智
惟贤法师

       学佛的目的,就是在唯识学里讲的“转依”。转依有二:一转染成净,二转识成智;转染成净为涅槃,转识成智为菩提。涅槃即自性清净,菩提即觉悟,能证得菩提是般若(依中观宗讲),或称正智即无分别智(依唯识宗讲)。

       众生在迷惑与染污中,没有智慧,不懂因果。学佛就是首先注重正确的熏习,多闻熏习后逐渐由染转净成为清净种子,恢复本有佛性。我们现在处于资粮位。唯识把修行的次第分为五位:一资粮位,二加行位,三见道位,四修习位,五究竟位。一资粮位系积福德智慧资粮,二加行位修定(唯识观),三见道位见唯识理,四修习位断烦恼、所知二障的现行和种子,至金刚道一切染种断完,坚如金刚,金刚道至等觉入妙觉即证佛果。

  转识成智:谓转八识成四智(三身四智)。众生的识以分别为主,分别即虚妄分别,去除虚妄分别,即是净智。

  集起名心,思量名“意”,了别名“识”。第八识能够含藏种子和种子现行互熏,是心;第七识执我,是思量;前六识对境是了别,此中前五识缘境是粗了别,第六识缘境由外到内,为细了别,第六识分五俱意识,散位意识,独头意识。五俱意识与前五识同时俱起;散位意识未接触外境亦可随时生起;独头意识就是无中生有的幻想。末那识以思量为主;阿赖耶识以受熏和执持(种子、根身器界)为主。总的来说,识都是虚妄分别,具染污性。

  阿赖耶识是就凡夫位而言,到佛果位叫无垢识。认识事物有分别都是有漏、有为,是不究竟的,是流转生死的根源,由此而有业障、烦恼障的生起。业力是感异熟果报,果报有正报和依报两种。正报依五蕴身讲,依报依山河大地讲,这是我们的障碍,称之为障,又称为杂染,这都是由虚妄分别而生起。分别生起的原因是有情的“我执”习气。我执有“人我执”和“法我执”两种,要彻底断除生死根本就必须断我执。虚妄分别之生起,一方面以我为主体,由贪心被境所染;另一方面损害他人,举手投足都要损害他人。凡夫不损害他人是很难的,五官就只能发挥此作用,学佛人就不同了,因在转变过程中,第六识虚妄分别逐渐减少。人们对自体没有正确认识,对共业所感的所有现象没有正确的观察,因受空间、时间的限制,加上烦恼障和业习的障碍就产生邪见,故而彼此之间常形成愚痴的对立与斗争。此为生死痛苦之源。

  杂染,虚妄分别等都由识而转变,其修持方法是守根护意(持戒),不受外境的感染就是守根,保持正念即是护意,学佛就先要守根,进一步护意。如念佛、念法、念僧、念因果、念众生等,由戒生定,有定力才发智慧,有智慧就有辨别能力。修持禅定,目的都是达到护持正念,进而开悟。般若宗讲,从文字般若到观照般若,最后到实相般若。禅宗也有文字,如《六祖坛经》,祖师禅讲不立文字,明心见性。由闻而思,护持正念,严持禁戒是基本功夫。唯识宗讲,闻的阶段就是熏习正法,同时要结合自身实行。熏习可从书上学,也可听善知识讲解。第六意识有虚妄分别,圣者无分别的智慧,不同于凡夫的世智辨聪。我们现在虽处于基础的位次(资粮位),但我们的宿世善根,也都是来的很不容易的。蕅益大师说:他在定中见到弥勒菩萨,对他说:“有分别是识,无分别是智;识属染,智属净;染有生死,智无诸佛”,智即空慧,空慧境界如六祖云:“本来无一物,何处染尘埃”。

  资粮位是积福德智慧资粮,属顺解脱分;加行位修止观,属抉择分;见道位见真理,去掉了理上的执着(禅宗的开悟、密宗的大圆满、唯识宗的真见道)。

  入地后,初地至十地都是修习位,在此阶段分别断烦恼、所知二障的现行和种子;入金刚道才把所有的种子断完。故修行要务实,要一步一步脚踏实地。入等觉至妙觉佛果成就,此时方转八识成四智。

  坛经言:“六七因中转,五八果上圆”。六识七识未成佛以前初地可以消灭二障现行;前五识与第八识的二障种子(包括六七识)至金刚位才能断尽。前五识转为成所作智,谓能成就众生一切事业,现化身来解除众生的痛苦。转第六识成妙观察智,能够微妙地观察诸法之自相与共相。转第七识为平等性智,清除我痴、我慢、我爱、我见而对一切众生平等,起大悲大行。转第八识成大圆镜智,第八识是我们的生命总体,众生位称阿赖耶识,因受了染污、迷惑而不能发光,不能照见一切,到佛果称为无垢识,如大圆镜能鉴照一切,不受外尘所染,光明遍照,至此,即可得三身四智。第八识现法身,第六七识现报身,报身有他受用身和自受用身,他受用身为地上菩萨说法所现之身;自受用身,是无量福慧成就的唯佛感受之身。前五识现化身,有应化身、变化身二种。应化身如八相成道,变化身即应机随类变化之身。证得三身四智的佛身,才叫无上正等正觉。

We need to contemplate on our precious human life, what is our motivation, and we must wish to be liberated from samsara. Then, from there, the most important is to achieve Buddhahood. We need strong will power to achieve this great goal. To make our life useful, we should not wait. We must be useful, we must use our daily life to be useful, not to harm others, and to create harmony. To be a good person, we must be mindful of what we do, for what we do is action, and this creates the imprint and results. This seed of imprint will ripen as karma ripens. We have collected so much bad karma from many lifetimes. Do not wait any longer.

— Dagyab Rinpoche

What is mind in Buddhism?
by Venerable Thubten Chodron

The word “mind” in Buddhism means any part of us that cognises, perceives or is aware of our emotions and attitudes. The mind, in essence, is the part of us that is cognitive, aware and conscious. It is the consciousness that distinguishes a corpse from a living being. The Buddhist word “mind” also means the heart in which the intellect and emotions are not separate but exists as a whole entity that does different functions at different times.

In Buddhism, the mind is not the brain. The brain is made up of matter and can be examined with scientific instruments. The mind, on the other hand, is formless. It is immaterial and cannot be examined by scientific instruments. But the mind and the brain interrelate. We can see that when there is brain damage, it affects the mind, our emotions and the way we perceive things. In turn, the state of our mind – if we are happy or angry etc – affects our physical body.

The mind has two qualities. It is clear and aware. It reflects objects. For example, when you are looking around in the room, you perceive objects, and images of those objects arise in your mind. The mind also has the ability to engage with objects.

It interrelates. The mind cannot be touched like many things that exist in this world that cannot be touched. But this doesn’t mean they do not exist, just like love and democracy. You cannot measure those with scientific instruments but they certainly exist. Similarly, the mind exists in that way. Buddhism emphasises more on the mind while science stresses more the brain but I think the two can go together in many ways. Buddhism is in no way contradictory to science. In fact, Buddhism elaborates on some parts of science.

In Buddhism, we say that the mind is our source of happiness and pain, because it is the mind and what goes on in our mind that determines if we have spiritual realisation or whether we live in confusion.

Mind and consciousness are synonymous. Whatever is conscious is aware. We have different types of consciousness. We have visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, a consciousness for each sense, and a mental consciousness, and I am defining all these different consciousness to mean the mind.

I am not sure the mind has a location, actually, since it is not made up of atoms and molecules. For example, a watch consists of atoms and molecules, so we can look through our senses and find it and say “Here’s the watch”. But our mind is not like that. Sometimes, we feel our mind is in our body. But when we sit down to investigate “where in my body is my mind?”, it’s hard to pinpoint and hard to find.

Observing outer objects, I find but my own mind; observing my mind, I find only Voidness; observing both mind and objects, I am freed from the Two Clingings. May I realise the Self-nature of the illuminating mind!

— 3rd Karmapa Rangjung Dorje

用佛法的镜子照出自己的真面目
达真堪布

物品用秤称过,才知道它的轻重。同样,以《二规教言论》所讲的这些功德、做人的标准来衡量、观察,才知道自己是个好人还是个坏人,自己是个善人还是个恶人,自己有功德还是没有功德。否则,若不这样衡量,自己是不会知道自己的。

为什么我们要学这些经典、论典?就是要通过这些观察、衡量自己。以前也讲过,佛法就像镜子,用它照自己,才能照出自己的真面目;佛法就像秤,好好称自己,才知道自己的轻重。

我们都有这个毛病,根本不知道自己到底是个好人还是坏人。有时候像个好人,有时候像个坏人;有时候像个善人,有时候像个恶人。自己有没有这种感觉?我有这种感觉。有时候感觉自己像个好人,感觉挺好的;但有时候真像个坏人。有时候感觉自己像个善人,“我多好啊”;但有时候感觉自己像个恶人,一观察自己的起心动念、言谈举止,对自己也是很失望的,自己也是一个真正的恶人。有功德和没有功德也是如此,自己去衡量、观察才会知道,否则不可能知道。

通过观察,如果你觉得自己是个好人,那你做了多少好事?如果你觉得自己是个善人,那你做了多少善事?若自己做的坏事太多了,自己这辈子造的恶业太多了,那你就是个恶人,你就是个坏人。

就要看你自己所做的这些,衡量一下,才会知道自己是坏人还是好人。有的人说:“我要学佛了……”这样一坐,真的像个菩萨。有的人头发一剃,红法衣一穿,好像一夜之间成佛了似的……自己以前造的恶业都忘了?不可能一夜之间成佛吧!

当然也有一夜之间成佛的,就像以前印度的恩扎布德,就是一瞬间成佛的。但你是不是这种人?你是不是成佛了?这个要自己看。如果你没有成佛,你自己所造的那些恶业、坏事还是在你的相续中,还是你这个人做的。

有些人真的有这样的毛病,一坐就成菩萨了似的,头发一剃就成佛了似的,自己什么过失也没有,只看别人的过失,“这个错了”“那个又错了”。只看别人的过失,难道自己就没有过失了?其实,只剃掉头发,没有什么意义。把头发剃了的同时,是不是同时将一切烦恼都剃掉了,都没有了?如果是这样,那你剃头也有意义了。否则,如果烦恼依旧、习气依旧,你天天剃头发也没有多大意义。所以,大家自己应该多反省自己。

有些人学佛很晚,有些人出家也很晚,在你的一生当中,杀生、偷盗、邪淫什么没有做过?自己所做的这些坏事、恶事不可能一下子全部消掉,为什么不反省,为什么不忏悔?这是很重要的。不能仅仅剃个头发,在这里上过一两堂课,就觉得自己很了不起,什么都烟消云散了似的。这是不可能的事!如果你不去反省、忏悔,到死亡的那天,堕落的时候,你会后悔的!但是这个时候已经来不及了!

我们在这儿念经的时候,应该念自己的过失、过错。我们剃头的时候,也要剃除自己的过失、过错。发心“我再也不能有这些过错,以前所做过的这些恶事,都忏悔!”这样我们学佛、出家才有意义。

只有以这些教言进行观察、衡量,才能知道自己是好人还是坏人,是善人还是恶人,自己到底是功德大还是过失多。

Overcome anger and arrogance, and let humility rule your mind. Give up unwholesome kind of living, and pursue a livelihood in keeping with the Dharma.

— Atiśa